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Table 4 Parenting stress score by anxiety and depression status in Côte d’Ivoire

From: Mental health related determinants of parenting stress among urban mothers of young children – results from a birth-cohort study in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire

  Depressed (n = 38) Non-depressed (n = 267) p Anxious (n = 16) Non-anxious (n = 289) p Entire sample (n = 305)
Parenting stress at 3 month (36-180) 92.4 (11.8) 85.0 (9.7) <0.001 94.9 (15.2) 85.4 (9.7) <0.001 85.9 (10.2)
  Parental distress (12-60) 36.7 (5.8) 31.6 (5.2) <0.001 37.3 (7.1) 32.0 (5.3) <0.001 32.2 (5.5)
  Parental-child dysfunctional interaction (12-60) 26.4 (4.3) 25.7 (3.6) 0.31 26.6 (4.9) 25.7 (3.7) 0.36 25.8 (3.7)
  Difficult child (12-60) 29.7 (5.1) 27.6 (4.2) 0.005 31.0 (6.1) 27.7 (4.2) 0.01 27.9 (4.4)
  Depressed (n = 49) Non-depressed (n = 232) p Anxious (n = 33) Non-anxious (n = 498) p Entire sample (n = 281)
Parenting stress at 12 month (36-180) 95.8 (10.3) 84.2 (8.9) <0.001 96.2 (10.7) 85.2 (9.5) <0.001 86.2 (10.1)
  Parental distress (12-60) 38.1 (6.3) 30.5 (4.9) <0.001 38.7 (6.4) 31.2 (5.4) <0.001 31.9 (5.9)
  Parental-child dysfunctional interaction (12-60) 26.6 (3.1) 25.7 (2.8) 0.04 26.5 (3.0) 25.8 (2.8) 0.26 25.9 (2.9)
  Difficult child (12-60) 31.3 (5.2) 28.0 (3.9) <0.001 31.0 (5.2) 28.3 (4.2) 0.002 28.6 (4.3)
  Depressed (n = 6) Non-depressed (n = 56) p Anxious (n = 1) Non-anxious (n = 61) p Entire sample (n = 62)
Parenting stress at 24 month (36-180) 103.7 (8.5) 81.9 (9.8) <0.001 118 83.5 (10.8) 0.002 84.0 (11.6)
  Parental distress (12-60) 41.4 (4.3) 28.9 (5.3) <0.001 46 30.0 (6.2) 0.01 30.2 (6.4)
  Parental-child dysfunctional interaction (12-60) 29.0 (3.7) 24.9 (2.5) <0.001 34 25.2 (2.7) 0.002 25.3 (2.9)
  Difficult child (12-60) 33.7 (4.5) 28.1 (4.4) 0.005 38 28.5 (4.5) 0.04 28.6 (4.7)
  1. Note: Exposures (depression and anxiety) and outcome (PS score) were assessed and compared at the same time. For example, the comparison of 3 month PS is between depressed vs. non-depressed or anxious vs. non-anxious mothers at 3 months. Bold: p<0.05.