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Table 3 Sleep environments and bedtime hygiene regarding FNA by multivariate logistical regression models (N = 20,505)

From: Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness

Variables Model I Model II Model III Model IV
Adjusted OR (95% CI) Pvalue Adjusted OR (95% CI) Pvalue Adjusted OR (95% CI) Pvalue Adjusted OR (95% CI) Pvalue
Sleep environments         
 Sleep arrangements   .118   .141   .859   .741
  Bed-sharing vs. sleeping alone 1.14 (1.01-1.29) .039 1.13 (1.00-1.28) .050 0.99 (0.88-1.13) .927 0.97 (0.86-1.10) .548
  Room-sharing vs. sleeping alone 1.05 (0.92-1.22) .467 1.06 (0.92-1.22) .424 1.04 (0.90-1.20) .620 1.04 (0.90-1.21) .514
 Bedroom intrusive noise vs. none 1.13 (0.91-1.40) .286 1.12 (0.90-1.39) .326 1.09 (0.87-1.36) .462 1.01 (0.81-1.27) .9207
 Bedroom intrusive light vs. none 1.23 (1.06-1.42) .006 1.22 (1.05-1.41) .009 1.18 (1.01-1.37) .032 1.15 (1.00-1.34) .069
Bedtime hygiene         
 Having caffeine drinks after 6:00pm   <.001   <.001   .002   .054
  Usually/often vs. occasionally/no 1.28 (1.16-1.41)   1.27 (1.15-1.40)   1.18 (1.07-1.30)   1.12 (0.99-1.24)  
 Doing exciting activities before bedtime   <.001   <.001   <.001   <.001
  Usually/often vs. occasionally/no 1.43 (1.29-1.58)   1.41 (1.27-1.56)   1.31 (1.18-1.46)   1.24 (1.10-1.39)  
 Bedtime resistance vs. none 1.59 (1.41-1.80) <.001 1.57 (1.39-1.78) <.001 1.57 (1.37-1.80) <.001 1.42 (1.24-1.63) <.001
 Irregular bedtime vs. none 1.12 (1.01-1.24) .041 1.11 (1.00-1.23) .057 0.92 (0.82-1.03) .154 0.91 (0.81-1.02) .075
  1. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval;
  2. Model I adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics;
  3. Model II adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and sleep environments;
  4. Model III adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, sleep environments, and bedtime hygiene;
  5. Model IV adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, biological health problems, psychosocial conditions, family history, sleep environments, and bedtime hygiene simultaneously.