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Table 2 Summary of pooled effects at post-treatment

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of peer support for people with severe mental illness

Outcome Trials Participants Effect size (95% CI) Heterogeneity: I 2 ;Chi2 (p value) Follow-up (months) GRADE confidence rating
Mutual Support 4 2369     
Hospitalisation [51] 1 80 RR = 0.50 (0.23, 1.11) N/A 10 Very low1,4,5
Symptoms of psychosis 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Employment 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Quality of life [47] 1 300 SMD = -1.42 (-1.69, – 1.16) N/A 12 Very low1,4,5
Overall psychiatric symptoms [49] 1 162 N/A “no difference in change” N/A N/A N/A
Depression and anxiety [47] 1 300 SMD = -0.42 (-0.66, – 0.18) N/A 12 Very low1,4,5
Recovery [47] 1 300 SMD = -0.11 (-0.35, 0.13) N/A 12 Very low1,4,5
Hope [49] 1 162 N/A “no difference in change” N/A N/A N/A
Empowerment [42, 47, 49] 3 2266 SMD = -1.44 (-2.79, – 0.09) 99%; 186.26 (p < 0.001) 8-12 Very low1,2,4,5
Satisfaction 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Peer-support 11 2805     
Hospitalisation [38] 1 45 RR = 1.07 (0.55, 2.07) N/A 9-12 Very low1,4,5
Duration of admission [38, 44, 48] 3 255 SMD = -0.22 (-0.72, 0.28) 72%; 7.16 (p = 0.03)   Very low1,2,4,5
Symptoms of psychosis [36, 45] 2 696 SMD = -0.08 (-0.27, 0.03) N/A 2-12 Low4,5
Employment 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Quality of life [36, 39, 45, 48, 50] 5 1039 SMD = 0.04 (-0.16, 0.24) 52%; 8.38 (p = 0.08) 3-12 Very low1,4,5
Depression and anxiety [36, 41, 45] 3 861 SMD = -0.10 (-0.24, 0.03) 0%; 1.97 (p = 0.37) 2-12 Low4,5
Overall psychiatric symptoms [41, 45, 48] 3 753 SMD = -0.07 (-0.39, 0.24) 74%; 7.83 (p = 0.02) 3-9 Very low 1,2,4,5
Recovery [36, 39, 45, 46] 4 1066 SMD = -0.24 (-0.39, – 0.09) 27%; 4.09 (p = 0.25) 2-12 Low4,5
Hope (SMD) [39, 45, 46, 50] 4 1072 SMD = -0.14 (-0.27, -0.02) 7%; 3.21 (p = 0.36) 2-3 Very low 1,4,5
Empowerment [39, 50] 2 286 SMD = -2.67 (-7.35, 2.02) 97%; 38.87 (p < 0.001) 3 Very low1,2*,4,5
Satisfaction [38, 41, 48] 3 332 SMD = 0.02 (-0.20, 0.23) 0%; 0.95 (p = 0.62) 9-12 Very low1,4,5
Peer delivered services 3 411     
Hospitalisation [40] 1Ψ 114 RR = 0.68 [0.45, 1.03] N/A 24 Very Low1,4,5
Symptoms of psychosis 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Employment [28] 1 96 N/A “no differences” N/A N/A N/A
Quality of life (SMD) [28] 1 96 N/A “no differences” N/A N/A N/A
Depression and anxiety 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Overall psychiatric symptoms 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Recovery 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Hope 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Empowerment 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Satisfaction [28] 1 87 SMD = 0.48 (0.05, 0.91) N/A 12 Very low1,4,5
  1. This table shows the number of trials and participants assigned for each comparison. For each outcome, it lists the number of trials and participants included in the analysis.
  2. Reasons for downgrade: 1Risk of bias, 2Inconsistency, 3Indirectness, 4Imprecision, 5Publication/Reporting Bias.
  3. RR Relative Risk, SMD Standardised Mean Difference.
  4. Ψ Solomon [28] measured the outcome and reported no difference.