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Table 3 Estimating provider-level variance in GAF scores at admission (N = 1852)

From: Multilevel analysis of the determinants of the global assessment of functioning in an inpatient population

  Model: χ2 = 222.74, df = 7, p < .001
Parameter est se z p
Intercept 40.25 1.97 20.45 <.001
Male gender 0.45 0.54 0.83 .404
Age 0.03 0.02 1.24 .215
Diagnosis     
  Schizophrenia --- --- ---  
  Dementia −2.71 1.21 −2.23 .026
  Mood 3.72 0.70 5.28 <.001
  Other 5.30 0.80 6.65 <.001
ADL −0.45 0.09 −5.23 <.001
IADL −0.25 0.04 −6.82 <.001
Variance:     
Unit-level 30.25 14.31   
Physician-level 10.39 3.79   
Individual-level 100.48 3.35   
ρ(physician)* 0.07    
ρ(physician, unit) 0.29    
  1. *Intraclass correlation within physicians: physician-level variance/total variance.
  2. Intraclass correlation within units and physicians: (unit-level variance + physician-level variance)/total variance.