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Table 2 Operationalization of DSM-IV adapted criteria for paediatric insomnia in children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism (n = 32) and in controls (n = 32).

From: Insomnia in school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism

Criteria for paediatric insomnia, proposed by Glaze et al (2002) Operationalized criteria, used in the current study AS/HFA group (n = 32) Control group (n = 32)
1. The complaint is significant difficulty (defined by frequency, severity, and/or chronicity) initiating or maintaining sleep. The difficulty is viewed as problematic by the child and/or a caregiver; 1. Parent report of a significant sleep problem either 19/32 3/32
  1.1. difficulty initiating sleep ≥ 3 t/week or; 8/19 0/3
  1.2. night-time awakenings ≥ 3 t/week 6/19 0/3
  1.3. difficulty initiating sleep and/or night-time awakenings ≥ 3 t/week 12/191 0/3
2. The sleep disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in school performance, behaviour, mood, learning, or development for the child as reported by the child and/or a caregiver; 2. Parent-reported consequence of a sleep problem   
  2.1. distress for the child 7/12 0/0
  2.2. impaired daytime function for the child 10/12 0/0
  2.3. burden for the parents 10/12 0/0
3. The sleep disturbance does not occur exclusively in the context of an intrinsic dyssomnia such as narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, or sleep-related breathing disorders; a circadian rhythm disorder; or a parasomnia; and 3. Insomnia does not occur exclusively in the context of another sleep disorder 10/12 0/0
4. The sleep disturbance is not attributable to either the direct physiologic effect of a drug or the abuse or misuse of a prescribed medication. 4. Insomnia is not attributable to the previous or current medication 10/12 0/0
  1. 1 From these 12 children with difficulties initiating sleep or night-time awakenings at least three times per week, 6/12 children had difficulties initiating sleep, 4/12 had night-time awakenings, and 2/12 had both difficulties initiating sleep and night-time awakenings at least three times per week. AS = Asperger syndrome HFA = high-functioning autism.