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Table 4 Results of hierarchical regression for predictors of parenting stress

From: Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

Predictor Variables B β sr2 t p
Model 1 F(10, 147) = 6.82, p < .001 R2 = .32   
Age .06 .01 .00 .09 .94
Income -3.12 -.10 -.02 -1.40 .31
History of Depression 1.49 .10 .01 1.30 .15
History of Abuse 1.03 .06 .00 .76 .39
History of Miscarriage/Abortion 1.82 -.04 -.07 -.50 .74
Major Life Events -6.12 -.11 -.20 -1.47 .13
Antenatal Anxiety 9.15 .32 .07 3.91 .00***
Negative Cognitive Style -.10 -.05 -.08 -.56 .64
Self-Esteem -1.80 -.24 -.33 -2.43 .04
Social Support -5.23 -.09 -.12 -.90 .20
Model 2 F(1, 146) = 6.56, p < .001 R 2 = .35   
Age -.16 -.02 -.04 -.28 .81
Income -2.57 -.09 .16 -1.17 .43
History of Depression 1.73 .11 .01 1.53 .10
History of Abuse .87 .05 .00 .65 .47
History of Miscarriage/Abortion -1.78 -.04 -.07 -.50 .72
Major Life Events -6.99 -.12 -.23 -1.70 .08
Antenatal Anxiety 5.73 .20 .02 2.15 .03*
Negative Cognitive Style -.22 -.10 -.15 -1.15 .25
Self-Esteem -1.07 -.14 -.18 -1.37 .28
Social Support -4.52 -.07 -.11 -.80 .25
Antenatal Depression 8.75 .29 .03 2.55 .01*
Model 3 F(1, 145) = 28.18, p < .001   
Age -.07 -.01 -.02 -.04 .97
Income -2.10 -.07 -.13 -.61 .54
History of Depression .31 .02 .00 .50 .62
History of Abuse -.07 -.00 -.01 -.05 .96
History of Miscarriage/Abortion .72 .01 .00 .36 .72
Major Life Events -6.94 -.12 -.22 -1.90 .06
Antenatal Anxiety 2.95 .10 .01 1.23 .22
Negative Cognitive Style -.15 -.07 -.11 -.77 .45
Self-Esteem -1.22 -.16 -.21 -1.36 .17
Social Support -3.20 -.05 -.07 -1.01 .32
Antenatal Depression -.24 -.01 -.01 -.02 .98
Postnatal Depression 15.51 .52 .11 5.31 .00***
R = .67      
R 2 = .45***      
Adjusted R 2 = .41      
Standard Error = 28.34      
  1. *p < .05, ***p < .001.
  2. B = unstandardised regression coefficients, β = standardised regression coefficients, sr2 = semipartial correlations