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Table 1 Patient demographics, diagnosis and characteristics by treatment cohort

From: Use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines in patients with psychiatric emergencies: Results of an observational trial

Parameter [statistic] All patients Olanzapine vs. non-olanzapine Risperidone vs. non-risperidone Haloperidol vs. non-haloperidol
   OLZ Non-OLZ   RIS Non-RIS   HAL Non-HAL  
  (N = 558) (N = 390) (N = 168) p-value (N = 72) (N = 486) p-value (N = 132) (N = 426) p-value
Patient demographics           
   Gender (male), n (%) 353
(63.3)
237
(60.8)
116
(69.0)
0.068 46
(63.9)
307
(63.2)
0.923 93
(70.5)
260
(61.0)
0.053
   Age, median (range), y 38
(18–93)
37
(18–93)
39
(19–84)
0.068 40
(19–87)
38
(18–93)
0.081 39
(18–93)
38
(18–90)
0.223
Primary psychiatric diagnosis a
(ranked according to overall frequency)b
          
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders
(F20–F29), n (%)
330
(59.1)
215
(55.1)
115
(68.5)
0.003 50
(69.4)
280
(57.6)
0.057 92
(69.7)
238
(55.9)
0.005
Disorders due to substance use
(F10–F19), n (%)
98
(17.6)
69
(17.7)
29
(17.3)
0.902 7
(9.7)
91
(18.7)
0.061 23
(17.4)
75
(17.6)
0.962
Mood (affective) disorders
(F30–F39), n (%)
88
(15.8)
80
(20.5)
8
(4.8)
< .001 4
(5.6)
84
(17.3)
0.011 15
(11.4)
73
(17.1)
0.112
Disorders of adult personality and behaviour
(F60–F69), n (%)
84
(15.1)
67
(17.2)
17
(10.1)
0.032 10
(13.9)
74
(15.2)
0.767 4
(3.0)
80
(18.8)
< .001
Organic, including symptomatic mental disorders
(F00–F09), n (%)
69
(12.4)
39
(10.0)
30
(17.9)
0.010 14
(19.4)
55
(11.3)
0.051 19
(14.4)
50
(11.7)
0.418
   Otherc, N (%) 57
(10.2)
43
(11.0)
14
(8.3)
0.335 8
(11.1)
49
(10.1)
0.788 5
(3.8)
52
(12.2)
0.005
Co-morbid substance use disorder (SUD) at baseline b           
   Nicotine, n (%) 241
(43.2)
172
(44.1)
69
(41.1)
0.507 28
(38.9)
213
(43.8)
0.430 50
(37.9)
191
(44.8)
0.159
   Alcohol, n (%) 103
(18.5)
68
(17.4)
35
(20.8)
0.343 11
(15.3)
92
(18.9)
0.456 25
(18.9)
78
(18.3)
0.871
   Illicit drugs, n (%) 83
(14.9)
59
(15.1)
24
(14.3)
0.798 9
(12.5)
74
(15.2)
0.544 24
(18.2)
59
(13.8)
0.222
Type of behavioural emergency at baseline b           
   Self-endangering, n (%) 264
(47.3)
186
(47.7)
78
(46.4)
0.784 28
(38.9)
236
(48.6)
0.125 68
(51.5)
196
(46.0)
0.268
   Third party endangering, n (%) 393
(70.4)
266
(68.2)
127
(75.6)
0.079 57
(79.2)
336
(69.1)
0.082 108
(81.8)
285
(66.9)
0.001
   Agitation, n (%) 408
(73.1)
294
(75.4)
114
(67.9)
0.066 53
(73.6)
355
(73.0)
0.919 98
(74.2)
310
(72.8)
0.739
Type of admission           
   Compulsory admission, n (%) 238
(42.7)
159
(40.8)
79
(47.0)
0.171 32
(44.4)
206
(42.4)
0.742 78
(59.1)
160
(37.6)
< .001
Premature discontinuation, n (%) 16
(2.9)
9
(2.3)
7
(4.2)
0.223 3
(4.2)
13
(2.7)
0.465 6
(4.5)
10
(2.3)
0.188
  1. a ICD-10 diagnostic groups are listed according to the frequency among all patients.
  2. b Patients may have received more than one ICD-10 diagnosis or more than one behavioural disturbance.
  3. c Behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence (F90–F98); behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (F50–F59); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F40–F48); and mental retardation (F70–F79)
  4. Abbreviations: OLZ = olanzapine, RIS = risperidone, HAL = haloperidol.