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Table 3 Comparaison of the chracteristics of women both groups at D30-40

From: Early identification of women at risk of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in a sample of Lebanese women

   Absence of PPD n (%) Presence of PPD n (%) p*
N   130 (87.2%) 19 (12.8%)  
Mean Age   31.7 32.6 0.477
Region of Residency Beirut 40 (30.8%) 4 (21.0%) 0.653
  South 6 (4.6%) 1 (5.3%)  
  Mount-Lebanon 75 (57.7%) 12 (63.1%)  
  North 3 (2.3%) 1 (5.3%)  
  Bekaa 4 (3.1%) 1 (5.3%)  
  Nabatiyeh 2 (1.5%) 0 (0%)  
Lebanese Yes 128 (98.5%) 19 (100%) 1.000
  No 2 (1.5%) 0 (0%)  
Education Elementary 0 (0%) 1 (5.3%) 0.075
  Intermediate 10 (7.7%) 0 (0%)  
  Secondary 7 (5.4%) 3 (15.8%)  
  University 90 (69.2%) 11 (57.9%)  
  Postuniversity 19 (14.6%) 4 (21%)  
  Other 4 (3.1%) 0 (0%)  
Occupation Unemployed 32 (25%) 5 (26.3%) 0.470
  Employee 64 (50%) 8 (42.1%)  
  Executive 12 (9.4%) 4 (21.1%)  
  Liberal profession 20 (15.6%) 2 (10.5%)  
Family Support Absent 7 (5.4%) 4 (21.1%) 0.060
  Present 123 (94.6%) 15 (78.9%)  
Personnal History of Depression Yes 9 (7%) 4 (21.1%) 0.066
  No 120 (93%) 15 (78.9%)  
Family History of Depression Yes 9 (7%) 7 (36.8%) 0.001
  No 120 (93%) 12 (63.2%)  
Perception of Pregnancy Easy 54 (41.9%) 4 (21.1%) 0.130
  Average 44 (34.1%) 7 (36.8%)  
  Difficult 31 (24%) 8 (42.1%)  
Perception of Delivery Easy 44 (34.4%) 4 (22.2%) 0.544
  Average 41 (32%) 6 (33.4%)  
  Difficult 43 (33.6%) 8 (44.4%)  
Newborn’s gender Male 63 (48.5%) 12 (63.2%) 0.326
  Female 67 (51.5%) 7 (36.8%)  
Pregnancy Term <36 WG 10 (7.8%) 3 (15.8%) 0.473
  36-40 WG 109 (84.4%) 15 (78.9%)  
  >40 WG 10 (7.8%) 1 (5.3%)  
Delivery route Vaginal 27 (20.8%) 3 (15.8%) 0.553
  Vaccum 30 (23.1%) 2 (10.5%)  
  Forceps 2 (1.5%) 0 (0%)  
  Vaccum + Forceps 1 (0.8%) 0 (0%)  
  C-section 70 (53.8%) 14 (73.7%)  
Birth order Primiparous 50 (38.5%) 5 (26.3%) 0.446
  Multiparous 80 (61.5%) 14 (73.7%)  
Twin Pregnancy Yes 6 (4.6%) 0 (0%) 1.000
  No 124 (95.4%) 19 (100%)  
Chronic medical problem for the mother Yes 54 (41.5%) 15 (78.9%) 0.003
  No 76 (58.5%) 4 (21.1%)  
Transfer of the mother to ICU Yes 1 (0.8%) 2 (10.5%) 0.043
  No 129 (99.2%) 17 (89.5%)  
Newborn at birth Dead 1 (0.8%) 0 (0%) 1.000
  Alive 129 (99.2%) 19 (100%)  
Foetal medical problem Yes 15 (11.5%) 3 (15.8%) 0.704
  No 115 (88.5%) 16 (84.2%)  
Newborn transfer to ICU Yes 15 (11.6%) 5 (26.3%) 0.050
  No 114 (88.4%) 14 (73.7%)  
Breastfeeding No (baby dead) 1 (0.8%) 0 (0%) 0.272
  Breastfeeding + 1–2 cups during hospital stay 21 (16.2%) 1 (5.3%)  
  No breastfeeding 6 (4.6%) 3 (15.8%)  
  Breastfeeding + >2 cups/day 22 (16.9%) 2 (10.5%)  
  Exclusive 80 (61.5%) 13 (68.4%)  
  1. WG: Weeks of Gestation; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; *Significance threshold p ≤ 0.05