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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of demographics, psychological variables and resilience

From: Resilience to trauma in the two largest cities of Brazil: a cross-sectional study

Independent variables Resilient χ 2(df) p-value
n (%)  
Gender    
Female 641 (35.6) 74.4 (1) < 0.001
Male 727 (50.7)   
Ethnic group a    
White 608 (42.6)   
Black 208 (41.6)   
Mixed-Race 500 (42.5) 5.9 (5) 0.32
Asian 31 (42.5)   
Indigenous 8 (23.5)   
Other 9 (52.9)   
Parental mental disorders    
(mother and/or father)    
No 1300 (43.2) 17.3 (1) < 0.001
Yes 65 (29.0)   
Childhood traumatic event    
None 971 (47.9)   
Trauma not physical or sexual 335 (36.3) 99.5 (3) < 0.001
Physical abuse 53 (25.5)   
Sexual abuse 6 (8.1)   
Age group (years)    
15-24 258 (45.3)   
25-34 315 (37.5)   
35-44 268 (40.6) 26.3(5) < 0.001
45-54 226 (41.9)   
55-64 162 (43.3)   
65-75 136 (54.6)   
Education (years)    
Illiterate 38 (45.2)   
1-4 208 (39.9)   
5-8 325 (38.5) 11.2(4) 0.03
9-12 562 (43.7)   
13 or more 232 (46.6)   
Marital status    
Single 404 (44.9)   
Married 780 (42.6) 14.3 (3) 0.003
Widowed 72 (41.9)   
Divorced 109 (33.0)   
Working    
No 535 (42.8) 0.29(1) 0.59
Yes 830 (41.9)   
Migration    
No 762 (43.3) 1.8 (1) 0.18
Yes 603 (41.0)   
Religion    
Catholic 834 (44.5)   
Spiritism 75 (39.9)   
Evangelical 318 (39.7) 10.7 (5) 0.06
Other 24 (36.9)   
Spirituality without religion 84 (36.4)   
Atheist 22 (41.5)   
Family income (minimum wage)    
Less than 2 397 (37.5)   
2 - 3.9 409 (44.9) 11.5 (2) 0.003
4 or more 383 (42.2)   
  1. aIndigenous versus other: χ2 = 4.9, df = 1, p = 0.03.