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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, actigraphic and MRS characteristics of participants (n = 53)

From: Delayed circadian phase is linked to glutamatergic functions in young people with affective disorders: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

Characteristic Mean ± SD
Gender, % female 71.7 (38/53)#
Age, years 21.8 ± 4.3
Hamilton depression rating scale 13.3 ± 7.0
Young Mania Rating Scalea 3.6 ± 5.3
Actigraphy  
Sleep onset, time 23:50 ± 1:12
Sleep offset, time 08:37 ± 1:18
Total sleep time, hours 7:28 ± 0:30
Wake after sleep onset, mins 78.5 ± 25.6
Sleep efficiency, % 85.2 ± 4.2
Sleep midpoint, time 04:14 ± 1:09
Anterior Cingulate neurometabolites  
N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA)/Creatine 1.29 ± 0.13
Glutathione (GSH)/Creatine 0.45 ± 0.12
Glutamate/Glutamine (Glx)/Creatine 2.07 ± 0.32
  1. #Data represents percentage and number.
  2. aAvailable in a subset of 39 participants.