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Table 3 Comparisons of the categories of observed driving behaviours in the ADHD and control groups

From: Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  Control (N = 21) ADHD (N = 22) Group comparison
  Mean observed frequencies (SD) F-ratio
Approach to junctions (urban area) 1.75
No mirror check when turning 4.95(1.43) 4.00(2.16) 2.88#
No signal when turning 0.00(0.00) 0.05(0.22) .95
Improperly timed signal 0.67(0.91) 0.71(0.90) .01
Inadequate observations junction 0.00(0.00) 0.32(0.78) 3.49#
Changing lanes/overtaking (motorway) 2.16 #
Number of lane changes/overtakings 9.90(5.14) 13.20(6.83) 3.07#
No mirror check when changing lane 0.76(1.14) 2.24(3.03) 3.70#
No signal when changing lane 0.62(1.99) 1.57(2.50) 3.25#
Improperly timed signal changing lane 1.38(2.13) 2.14(3.57) .01
Over speed limit when overtaking 0.05 (0.22) 0.23 (0.43)) 3.48#
Use of speed 1.48
Not slowing with the vehicle ahead 0.00 (0.00) 0.09 (0.29) 2.00
Hesitancy 0.14 (0.36) 0.00 (0.00) 3.53#
Too slow for surrounding traffic 0.05 (0.22) 0.14 (0.47) .62
Too fast approaching junctions 0.05 (0.22) 0.14 (0.47) .62
Not slowing after speed sign 2.10 (1.29) 2.64 (1.09) 1.45
Lane positioning 1.02
Too close to the kerb 0.10 (0.30) 0.64 (1.50) 2.64
Too far from the kerb/out of lane 0.90 (1.14) 1.23 (1.48) .64
Driving on the hard shoulder 0.14 (0.36) 0.27 (0.55) .83
Vehicle control 4.28*
Hand off the wheel > 5 s 0.00 (0.00) 0.59 (1.18) 4.43*
Wrong gear 0.38 (0.59) 1.14 (1.64) 5.56*
Stalling 0.24 (0.54) 0.48 (0.98) .95
Braking .63
Braking too abruptly 0.05 (0.22) 0.14 (.047) .63
Frustration/ Anger 4.65*
Unnecessarily using the horn 0.05 (0.22) 0.36 (1.00) 2.00
Impatience behind stationary/slow traffic 0.00 (0.00) 0.41 (0.67) 7.91**
Responses to events Observed frequencies in each category Χ2 statistic
Urban   
Crashed (driver’s fault)/ near miss 0.10 0.18 5.52 #
Slowed down/ changed lane 0.74 0.55
Drove past fast 0.16 0.26
Motorway    
Did not slow down 0.29 0.25 1.42
Slowed but not below speed limit 0.11 0.19
Slowed below speed limit 0.60 0.57
  1. The behaviours are grouped into categories, depicted in bold type. The between-subject multivariate analyses (conducted across items within each of the categories) are shown. Additional univariate F-ratios are presented for information for all categories except the Responses to Events