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Table 1 Proportion of participants reporting potential depression symptoms who consulted a mental health professional

From: Depression symptom and professional mental health service use

Characteristics   Total     Men     Women    
   N = 3762/21,644 (17.4 %), 16.6 %a N = 916/6465 (14.2 %), 13.6 %a N = 2846/15,179 (18.8 %), 18.2 %a
   No.b (%) %a p No.b (%) %a p No.b (%) %a p
Demographic factors             
Age (years)             
  Young adults (19–44) 1181/7243 (16.3) 15.9 0.002 299/2190 (13.7) 13.8 0.677 882/5053 (17.5) 17.0 0.001
  Middle aged (45–64) 1500/8116 (18.5) 17.3   356/2448 (14.5) 13.5   1144/5668 (20.2) 19.3  
  Elderly (≥65) 1081/6285 (17.2) 17.1   261/1827 (14.3) 13.3   820/4458 (18.4) 18.7  
Socioeconomic factors             
Education             
  Primary or less 1290/7213 (17.9) 17.6 <.0001 181/1391 (13.0) 12.6 0.186 1109/5822 (19.1) 18.8 <.0001
  Middle school 571/2844 (20.1) 19.1   156/963 (16.2) 15.2   415/1881 (22.1) 21.0  
  High school 1066/6109 (17.5) 17.2   281/1995 (14.1) 13.9   785/4114 (19.1) 18.9  
  College or more 835/5478 (15.2) 14.8   298/2116 (14.1) 13.2   537/3362 (16.0) 15.9  
Marital status             
  Married 2384/13,602 (17.5) 16.2 0.393 569/4282 (13.3) 12.1 0.001 1815/9320 (19.5) 18.3 0.001
  Separated/divorced 897/5125 (17.5) 18.9   130/953 (13.6) 14.1   767/4172 (18.4) 20.1  
  Unmarried 481/2917 (16.5) 15.9   217/1230 (17.6) 16.6   264/1687 (15.7) 15.5  
Income             
  Quartile1 971/5376 (18.1) 19.2 0.002 253/1641 (15.4) 16.6 0.031 718/3735 (19.2) 20.5 0.024
  Quartile2 1003/5423 (18.5) 17.5   229/1571 (14.6) 13.8   774/3852 (20.1) 19.3  
  Quartile3 921/5406 (17.0) 15.9   233/1584 (14.7) 13.7   688/3822 (18.0) 17.0  
  Quartile4 867/5439 (15.9) 15.4   201/1669 (12.0) 11.9   666/3770 (17.7) 17.2  
Residence             
  Metropolitan 1177/7173 (16.4) 16.4 0.025 274/2104 (13.0) 13.1 0.150 903/5069 (17.8) 18.0 0.109
  Urban 1124/6225 (18.1) 17.3   285/1885 (15.1) 14.8   839/4340 (19.3) 18.6  
  Rural 1461/8246 (17.7) 16.1   357/2476 (14.4) 12.4   1104/5770 (19.1) 17.9  
Employment status             
  Unemployed 2250/11,138 (20.2) 20.1 <.0001 467/2492 (18.7) 19.7 <.0001 1783/8646 (20.6) 20.2 <.0001
  Employed 1512/10,506 (14.4) 13.3   449/3973 (11.3) 10.4   1063/6533 (16.3) 15.5  
Health-behaviour factors             
Smoking status             
  Current smoker 667/4313 (15.5) 15.3 <.0001 392/3146 (12.5) 12.4 0.000 275/1167 (23.6) 24.6 <.0001
  Former smoker 454/2811 (16.2) 16.6   325/2168 (15.0) 15.2   129/643 (20.1) 21.0  
  Non-smoker 2641/14,520 (18.2) 17.1   199/1151 (17.3) 14.3   2442/13,369 (18.3) 17.4  
Drinking status             
  Drinker 2732/16,737 (16.3) 15.7 <.0001 785/5874 (13.4) 12.9 <.0001 1947/10,863 (17.9) 17.3 <.0001
  Non-drinker 1030/4907 (21.0) 21.5   131/591 (22.2) 22.6   899/4316 (20.8) 21.3  
Physical activity             
  Yes 2,788/16,174 (17.2) 16.6 0.348 664/4732 (14.0) 13.5 0.631 2124/11,442 (18.6) 18.1 0.315
  No 974/5470 (17.8) 16.9   252/1733 (14.5) 13.9   722/3737 (19.3) 18.6  
Sleep hours per day             
  <6 1246/6071 (20.5) 19.6 <.0001 268/1637 (16.4) 16.0 <.0001 978/4434 (22.1) 21.2 <.0001
  ≤6–9 2185/14,180 (15.4) 14.9   541/4343 (12.5) 12.0   1644/9837 (16.7) 16.4  
  ≥9 331/1393 (23.8) 24.2   107/485 (22.1) 22.1   224/908 (24.7) 25.4  
Health-condition factors             
Subjective health status             
  Good 444/4163 (10.7) 10.5 <.0001 141/1500 (9.4) 9.7 <.0001 303/2663 (11.4) 11.1 <.0001
  Moderate 1119/7864 (14.2) 13.8   236/2168 (10.9) 10.6   883/5696 (15.5) 15.2  
  Poor 2199/9617 (22.9) 23.8   539/2797 (19.3) 20.0   1660/6820 (24.3) 25.5  
Perceived stress susceptibility             
  Very high 979/4168 (23.5) 23.4 <.0001 275/1373 (20.0) 20.9 <.0001 704/2795 (25.2) 24.9 <.0001
  High 1918/10,176 (18.9) 17.7   437/2871 (15.2) 14.2   1481/7305 (20.3) 19.4  
  Low 741/6370 (11.6) 11.0   175/1919 (9.1) 7.9   566/4451 (12.7) 12.4  
  Very low 124/930 (13.3) 14.1   29/302 (9.6) 8.0   95/628 (15.1) 17.2  
Unmet healthcare needs            
  Yes 1116/6865 (16.3) 16.2 0.003 251/1874 (13.4) 13.3 0.270 865/4991 (17.3) 17.6 0.002
  No 2646/14,779 (17.9) 16.8   665/4591 (14.5) 13.7   1981/10188 (19.4) 18.4  
Hypertension             
  Yes 1164/6064 (19.2) 18.9 <.0001 294/1818 (16.2) 16.0 0.004 870/4246 (20.5) 20.5 0.001
  No 2598/15,580 (16.7) 16.0   622/4647 (13.4) 12.8   1976/10,933 (18.1) 17.6  
Diabetes mellitus             
  Yes 497/2618 (19.0) 18.6 0.023 123/881 (14.0) 13.8 0.890 374/1737 (21.5) 21.4 0.002
  No 3265/19,026 (17.2) 16.4   793/5584 (14.2) 13.6   2472/13,442 (18.4) 17.8  
Hyperlipidaemia             
  Yes 845/3479 (24.3) 23.0 <.0001 190/965 (19.7) 19.5 <.0001 655/2514 (26.1) 24.7 <.0001
  No 2917/18,165 (16.1) 15.5   726/5500 (13.2) 12.5   2191/12,665 (17.3) 17.0  
CVDc             
  Yes 419/1933 (21.7) 21.8 <.0001 139/757 (18.4) 18.9 0.001 280/1176 (23.8) 24.1 <.0001
  No 3343/19,711 (17.0) 16.3   777/5708 (13.6) 13.1   2566/14,003 (18.3) 17.8  
Arthritis             
  Yes 1125/5119 (22.0) 22.8 <.0001 142/747 (19.0) 18.5 <.0001 983/4372 (22.5) 23.7 <.0001
  No 2637/16,525 (16.0) 15.4   774/5718 (13.5) 13.1   1863/10,807 (17.2) 16.7  
Asthma             
  Yes 282/1164 (24.2) 24.9 <.0001 70/325 (21.5) 21.4 0.000 212/839 (25.3) 26.3 <.0001
  No 3480/20,480 (17.0) 16.2   846/6140 (13.8) 13.2   2634/14,340 (18.4) 17.7  
  1. aWeighted %
  2. bThe values were expressed as the number of participants who consulted/participants of each category
  3. cCVD refers to cardiovascular disease, including angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke