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Table 3 Psychometrics of help-seeking measures

From: Mental health literacy measures evaluating knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking: a scoping review

Measures Author/developer Reliability Validity Content
1. Attitudes towards help-seeking scale (with various modified versions) Fischer & Turner, 1970 [143] αa = .83; .86 FA; CS A/H
r it = -.58 - .56 (p < .0001)
rb = .73-.89
Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale (ATSPPH) Fischer & Farina, 1995 [147] αa = .77-.98;.84;.90 FA; CS; CR
r it a = .54;
rb = .80
ATSPPH-SF Elhai, et al., 2008 [146] αa = .69; .77-.78; .84 FA; CS
r it a > .40
rb = .64 (p = .045)
2. Intention of Seeking Counseling Inventory (ISCI) Cepeda-Benito & Short, 1998 [144] αa = .89 FA; CS I
3. General Help Seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ) Deane et al., 2001 [145] αa = .67, .76, .82 FA I
Gulliver et al., 2012 [35] αa = .57-.77;  
rb = .42-.91 (p < 0.001)
Wilson et al., 2005 [159] αa = .70-.85; P; CV; DV
ICCb = .86-.92
4. Jorm Mental health literacy survey (items on attitudes/beliefs towards treatment) Jorm, Blewitt et al., 2005 [149] Kc = 0.15-1.00   A/T
Jorm, Mackinnon et al., 2005 [150]   FA
Reavley et al., 2014 [154]   CS
5. Help Seeking Intentions Lee et al., 2014 [151] αa = .74, .76 FA I
6. The New Inventory of Attitudes Towards Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) Mackenzie et al., 2004 [152] αa = .87 (.76-.82) FA; CS A/H
rb = .64-.91 (p < 0.01)
7. Help-Seeking Attitude Scale (HSAS) Nickerson et al., 1994 [153] αa = .87 CC A/H
8. Scale of Attitudes Toward Seeking Psychological Help for Secondary Students (ASPH-S) Sahin & Uyar, 2011 [156] αa = .85 (.59-.81) FA A/H
r it a = .41-.57
ICCb = .81
9. Help Seeking Acceptability (HSA) Schmeelk-Cone et al., 2012 [157] αa = .84-.88 FA; CS A/H
r it a = .81-.85
10. Parental Attitudes Toward Psychological Services Inventory (PATPSI) (based on ATSPPH) Turner, 2012 [158] αa = .72-.92 FA; CS A/H
ICCb = .66-.90
  1. aInternal consistency reliability: Cronbach alpha (α), item to total correlation (r it); btest-retest reliability: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Pearson correlation coefficient (r); c inter-rater reliability: weighted kappa (k)
  2. CT Content validity, CS Construct validity, CR Criterion validity, CV Convergent validity, CC Concurrent validity, D Discriminant validity, FA Factor analysis, DV Divergent validity, P Predictive validity
  3. A/H Beliefs/Attitudes towards help-seeking, I help-seeking intentions, A/T beliefs/attitudes towards treatment