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Table 2 Prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and personality traits in individuals with/ without type 2 diabetes

From: Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study

  No type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes p-value
Depressive symptoms
 PHQ-9 score 2.46 ± 3.18 3.26 ± 4.53 0.020
 PHQ-9 ≥ 10 23 (4.2 %) 16 (7.8 %) 0.081
Depressive disorder
 Depressive disorder (MINI) 33 (5.5 %) 22 (8.8 %) 0.105
 Lifetime depressive episode (MINI) 220 (36.5 %) 86 (34.3 %) 0.538
 Dysthymia (MINI) 5 (0.8 %) 7 (2.8 %) a
Anxiety symptoms
 GAD-7 score 2.59 ± 3.59 2.83 ± 4.01 0.444
 GAD-7 ≥ 10 29 (5.4 %) 14 (7 %) 0.424
Anxiety disorders
 Current panic disorder 4 (0.7 %) 3 (1.2 %) a
 Lifetime panic disorder 26 (4.3 %) 6 (2.4 %) a
 Current agoraphobia 35 (5.8 %) 24 (9.6 %) 0.073
 Current social phobia 9 (1.5 %) 3 (1.2 %) a
Type D personality
 Social inhibition 8.55 ± 4.63 9.62 ± 5.27 0.013
 Social inhibition score ≥ 10 189 (36.4 %) 87 (45.1 %) 0.038
 Negative affectivity 7.47 ± 4.93 8.54 ± 5.65 0.020
 Negative affectivity score ≥ 10 140 (27 %) 70 (36.3 %) 0.020
 Type D personality 79 (15.2 %) 44 (22.8 %) 0.027
Big Five personality traits
 Extraversion 30.4 ± 6.5 28.9 ± 7.4 0.016
 Agreeableness 34.8 ± 3.7 33.7 ± 4.8 0.004
 Conscientiousness 32.6 ± 5.7 31.1 ± 5.9 0.002
 Emotional stability 30.6 ± 6.3 29.5 ± 7.0 0.058
 Openness 28.5 ± 6.5 28.0 ± 6.4 0.287
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (percentage)
  2. a Formal testing was not possible due low numbers
  3. Bold data reflect significant findings