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Table 3 The association of depression and anxiety symptoms and personality traits with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level

From: Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study

  Type 2 diabetes versus no diabetes
Odds ratioa (95 % CI) p-value
Depressive symptoms
 PHQ-9 score 1.10 (1.05–1.15) <0.001
 PHQ-9 ≥ 10 3.15 (1.49–6.67) 0.003
Depressive disorder
 Depressive disorder (MINI) 1.73 (0.83–3.60) 0.156
 Lifetime depressive episode (MINI) 0.97 (0.69–1.36) 0.862
Anxiety symptoms
 GAD-7 score 1.03 (0.99–1.08) 0.162
 GAD-7 ≥ 10 1.50 (0.72–3.12) 0.280
Type D personality
 Social inhibition 1.04 (1.00–1.08) 0.032
 Social inhibition score ≥ 10 1.35 (0.93–1.94) 0.112
 Negative affectivity 1.05 (1.02–1.09) 0.004
 Negative affectivity score ≥ 10 1.70 (1.14–2.51) 0.009
 Type D personality 1.95 (1.23–3.10) 0.005
Big Five personality traits
 Extraversion 0.97 (0.95–1.00) 0.023
 Agreeableness 0.94 (0.90–0.98) 0.003
 Conscientiousness 0.94 (0.91–0.97) <0.001
 Emotional stability 0.97 (0.94–0.99) 0.013
 Openness 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.938
  1. a Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex and education level
  2. Bold data reflect significant findings