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Table 4 Online self-report instruments for stress, worrying, suicidal ideation and self-harm, and the number of studies that report psychometric characteristics (between parentheses)

From: Validation of online psychometric instruments for common mental health disorders: a systematic review

Instrument Purpose N studies Population/setting Countries in which the studies were conducted Internal consistency (alpha) Test-retest reliability Factor structure Mean score difference with paper version Convergent validity Criterion validity (AUC)
Stress           
PSS Symptom severity 1 G5 ES .72 (1)   1 factor (1) None/lower (1) (1)  
Worry           
PSWQ Symptom severity 2 G1, G5 NL, US .73–.88 (2) (1) 1 factor (1)   (1)  
Worry (postpartum)           
PWS-R Symptom severity 1 G2 US .64–.88 (1)   4 factors (1)   (1)  
Self-harm           
ISAS Symptom severity 1 G6 US + UK + CA + AU .77–.87 (1)   2 factors (1)    (1)
Suicidal ideation           
BDI-II item 9 Screening 1 G1 SE     Lower (1)   
MADRS-S item 9 Screening 1 G1 SE     None (1)   
  1. G1: General population; G2: Adult females; G3: Adult males; G4: General teenage population; G5: Student population; G6: General young adult population; G7: Veteran population; P1: Patient population; P2: Adult psychiatric outpatients; P3: Adult social phobia patients; P4: Adult GP patients; P5: Hearing impaired clinical population; P6: Deaf population; P7: Adults with chronic fatigue syndrome; P8: Participants in studies of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; AU: Australia; CA: Canada; DK: Denmark; ES: Spain; NL: Netherlands; NO: Norway; NZ: New Zealand; SE: Sweden; TW: Taiwan; UK: United Kingdom; US: United States; AUC: Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve