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Table 2 Intervention outcome

From: Is adherence therapy an effective adjunct treatment for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders? A systematic review and meta-analysis

   Intervention group Control group Effect size
Study Outcome measures n Baseline mean (SD) Follow-up mean (SD) n Baseline mean (SD) Follow-up mean (SD) SMD (95 % CI)
Anderson et al. (2010) [19] PETiT 10 40.10 (9.24) 37.30 (8.87) 13 40.10 (10.29) 41.61 (8.63) −0.48 (−1.31, 0.36)
  PANSS 10 74.60 (13.79) 64.40 (30.54) 13 81.2 (17.66) 72.53 (19.20) −0.32 (−1.15, 0.51)
Chien et al. (2015) [18] PANSS 54 80.19 (11.10) 68.12 (14.81) 56 81.13 (12.01) 83.45 (14.13) −1.05 (−1.45, −0.65)
  ITAQ 54 9.12 (6.14) 13.88 (6.80) 56 9.33 (3.31) 9.79 (6.21) 0.62 (0.24, 1.01)
  ARS 54 1.48 (0.98) 3.08 (1.24) 56 1.39 (1.01) 1.48 (1.01) 1.41 (0.99, 1.83)
Gray et al. (2006) [5] SAI-C 173 5.04 (1.39) 5.22 (1.57) 189 4.73 (1.63) 5.03 (1.55) 0.12 (−0.08, 0.33)
  MAQ 172 2.98 (1.24) 3.20 (1.07) 194 2.97 (1.20) 3.33 (1.02) −0.12 (−0.33, 0.08)
  BPRS 175 45.96 (13.23) 38.11 (11.33) 196 44.31 (12.79) 37.34 (9.79) 0.07 (−0.13, 0.28)
Maneesakorn et al. (2007) [21] DAI-30 14 19.19 (6.96) 21.63 (5.91) 14 15.38 (9.82) 13.50 (7.58) 1.16 (0.35, 1.97)
  SWAM 14 116.81 (26.83) 126.50 (18.40) 14 115. 13 (20.79) 113.19 (19.12) 0.71 (−0.02, 1.40)
  PANSS 14 56.81 (10.86) 41.63 (10.33) 14 61.25 (15.58) 60.06 (13.94) −1.46 (−2.31, −0.61)
Schulz et al. (2013) [20] CDR 54 3.83 (6.80) 3.34 (5.36) 39 4.19 (5.79) 6.36 (10.56) −0.38 (−0.79, 0.04)
  DAI-30 69 22.46 (6.83) 22.70 (6.59) 46 22.70 (6.69) 22.83 (5.89) −0.02 (−0.39, 0.35)
  MARS 69 7.55 (2.07) 7.75 (2.01) 46 7.46 (1.73) 7.65 (1.87) 0.03 (−0.35, 0.40)
  PANSS 63 48.32 (13.83) 44.13 (10.67) 42 49.33 (14.74) 50.29 (13.67) −0.51 (−0.91, −0.11)
von Bormann et al. (2015) DAI-30 38 15.74 (8.85) 20.11 (4.79) 32 15.91 (7.69) 18.91 (7.24) 0.20 (−0.27, 0.67)
  PANSS 38 46.76 (16.06) 43.13 (13.92) 32 48.19 (16.05) 48.50 (15.42) −0.36 (−0.84, 0.11)
  1. Abbreviations: ARS adherence rating scale [30], BPRS brief psychiatric rating scale [24], CDR concentration to dose ratio, DAI Hogan drug attitude inventory [27], ITAQ insight and treatment attitude questionnaire [29], MAQ medication adherence questionnaire [31], MARS medication adherence rating scale [32], PANSS positive and negative syndrome scale [23], PETiT personal evaluation of transitions in treatment scale [28], SAI-C schedule for assessment of insight – compliance item [25]