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Table 6 Factor analysis of items from four main ISMI subscales (excluding the Stigma Resistance subscale) (n = 173)

From: The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: validation of the Japanese version

Item Social withdrawal Alienation Discrimination experience Stereotype endorsement
I am embarrassed or ashamed that I have a mental illness 0.79 −0.03 −0.04 −0.08
I feel inferior to others who don’t have a mental illness 0.63 0.08 0.04 −0.06
I don’t talk about myself much because I don’t want to burden others with my mental illness 0.60 0.01 −0.14 0.24
I feel out of place in the world because I have a mental illness 0.59 −0.11 0.24 −0.06
Being around people who don’t have a mental illness makes me feel out of place or inadequate 0.55 0.14 0.08 0.07
Mentally ill people tend to be violent 0.49 −0.06 0.13 0.07
I don’t socialize as much as I used to because my mental illness might make me look or behave “weird” 0.46 0.22 0.05 0.07
I avoid getting close to people who don’t have a mental illness to avoid rejection 0.45 −0.08 0.10 0.09
I stay away from social situations in order to protect my family or friends from embarrassment 0.32 0.14 −0.04 0.14
I am disappointed in myself for having a mental illness 0.04 0.75 0.07 −0.01
People with mental illness cannot live a good, rewarding life 0.21 0.68 −0.06 −0.21
I can’t contribute anything to society because I have a mental illness −0.24 0.67 0.19 0.15
Having a mental illness has spoiled my life −0.02 0.65 0.31 −0.17
Others think that I can’t achieve much in life because I have a mental illness 0.19 0.40 0.15 0.12
People often patronize me, or treat me like a child, just because I have a mental illness −0.08 0.03 0.67 0.18
People discriminate against me because I have a mental illness 0.34 −0.12 0.61 −0.10
People ignore me or take me less seriously just because I have a mental illness -0.10 0.25 0.54 0.21
People without mental illness could not possibly understand me 0.06 0.24 0.54 −0.04
Negative stereotypes about mental illness keep me isolated from the “normal” world 0.41 0.07 0.43 −0.16
Mentally ill people shouldn’t get married 0.31 0.31 −0.39 0.15
Nobody would be interested in getting close to me because I have a mental illness 0.05 0.24 0.30 0.18
People can tell that I have a mental illness by the way I look 0.06 −0.28 0.27 0.67
Because I have a mental illness, I need others to make most decisions for me 0.01 0.11 −0.08 0.55
Stereotypes about the mentally ill apply to me 0.24 0.13 0.04 0.36
Eigenvalue 8.739 1.669 1.458 1.285
Cumulative contribution ratio 0.364 0.434 0.494 0.548
  1. Figures in bold show factor loadings > 0.40