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Table 7 Comparison of mean scores of stigma domains between patients with schizophrenia in different countries

From: The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: validation of the Japanese version

  Country/region n Alienation Stereotype endorsement Discrimination experience Social withdrawal Stigma resistance
The present study Japan 141a 2.35 ± 0.88 2.12 ± 0.83 2.25 ± 0.80 2.28 ± 0.83 2.75 ± 0.83
Lv et al. [25] China 95 2.29 ± 0.49 2.07 ± 0.44 2.15 ± 0.45 2.19 ± 0.46 2.17 ± 0.38
Brohan et al. [26] 14 European 1220b 2.53 ± 0.70 2.19 ± 0.53 2.43 ± 0.61 2.48 ± 0.66 2.47 ± 0.51
Sibitz et al. [27] Austria 157 2.28 ± 0.86 1.87 ± 0.63 2.16 ± 0.79 2.13 ± 0.74 2.73 ± 0.76
Lysaker et al. [28] US 133 2.45 ± 0.68 2.00 ± 0.51 2.48 ± 0.65 2.37 ± 0.65 2.25 ± 0.51
Lysaker et al. [29] US 75 2.31 ± 0.65 1.99 ± 0.54 2.42 ± 0.69 2.30 ± 0.66 2.17 ± 0.52
Lysaker et al. [30]c US 36 1.39 ± 0.68 1.14 ± 0.61 1.42 ± 0.70 1.31 ± 0.67 1.24 ± 0.50
Assefa et al. [31] Ethiopia 212 2.3 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 0.9 -
Botha et al. [8] South African 100 2.50 2.16 2.90 2.63 -
  1. a Patients with schizophrenia
  2. b Including patients with other mental disease
  3. c The authors used a 0-3 scale for the ISMI