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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects (n = 533)

From: Investigation of the clinical utility of the hypomania checklist 32 (HCL-32) for the screening of bipolar disorders in the non-clinical adult population

  Control (n = 313) BD1 (n = 112) BD2 (n = 108) Statistics (F or χ2) P-value Post hoc
Age, years (mean ± SD) 33.5 ± 9.2 33.9 ± 1.3 35.0 ± 1.3 0.0734 0.481  
Sex     3.766 0.15  
 Male 122 (39.0 %) 39 (34.8 %) 31 (28.7 %)    
 Female 191 (61.0 %) 73 (65.2 %) 77 (71.3 %)    
Education, n (%)     36.162 <0.001 Control > BD1, BD2
 College graduate or more 254 (81.1 %) 65 (58.6 %) 61 (56.6 %)    
Hypomania scores (mean ± SD)
 HCL-32 total 14.7 ± 5.4 16.1 ± 6.7 17.6 ± 6.5 10.527 <0.001 BD2 > Control
 Active/elated 12.4 ± 4.7 11.9 ± 5.0 13.0 ± 4.9 1.401 0.247  
 Irritable/risk-taking 2.2 ± 1.8 3.9 ± 3.0 4.5 ± 2.8 49.280 <0.001 BD2, BD1 > Control
  1. Post hoc: Scheffe’s test for continuous measures, pair-wise chi-square test for categorical measures
  2. BD1 bipolar I disorder, BD2 bipolar II disorder, HCL-32 hypomania checklist 32