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Table 2 Item distribution and internal consistency of the CES-D in people living with HIV/AIDS (N = 400)

From: Screening value of the Center for epidemiologic studies – depression scale among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a validation study

Item Score [n (%)]a M (SD) Item-test correlation Item-rest correlation Alpha if item deleted
0 1 2 3
I was bothered by things that don’t usually bother me 229 (57.3) 101 (25.3) 56 (14.0) 14 (3.5) 0.6 (0.9) 0.59 0.51 0.80
I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor 190 (47.7) 119 (29.9) 71 (17.8) 18 (4.5) 0.8 (0.9) 0.55 0.47 0.80
I felt that I could not shake off the blues even with the help of my family or friends 283 (71.1) 76 (19.1) 30 (7.5) 9 (2.3) 0.4 (0.7) 0.55 0.48 0.80
I felt that I was just as good as other peopleb 91 (22.8) 65 (16.2) 127 (31.8) 117 (29.2) 1.3 (1.1) 0.28 0.14 0.83
I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing 207 (51.9) 116 (29.1) 60 (15.0) 16 (4.0) 0.7 (0.9) 0.43 0.34 0.81
I felt depressed 235 (58.9) 92 (23.1) 60 (15.0) 12 (3.0) 0.6 (0.8) 0.60 0.52 0.80
I felt everything I did was an effort 230 (57.5) 94 (23.5) 40 (10.0) 36 (9.0) 0.7 (1.0) 0.40 0.30 0.81
I felt hopeful about the futureb 118 (29.6) 97 (24.3) 110 (27.6) 74 (18.5) 1.6 (1.1) 0.31 0.18 0.82
I thought my life had been a failure 255 (63.8) 86 (21.5) 42 (10.5) 17 (4.2) 0.6 (0.8) 0.46 0.37 0.81
I felt fearful 300 (75.8) 64 (16.1) 30 (7.6) 2 (0.5) 0.3 (0.6) 0.44 0.37 0.81
My sleep was restless 213 (53.4) 103 (25.8) 63 (15.8) 20 (5.0) 0.7 (0.9) 0.57 0.48 0.80
I was happyb 46 (11.6) 88 (22.1) 144 (36.2) 120 (30.1) 1.2 (1.0) 0.57 0.48 0.80
I talked less than usual 246 (61.5) 86 (21.5) 51 (12.8) 17 (4.2) 0.6 (0.9) 0.54 0.46 0.80
I felt lonely 253 (63.3) 83 (20.7) 53 (13.3) 11 (2.7) 0.6 (0.8) 0.60 0.53 0.80
People were unfriendly 305 (76.8) 60 (15.1) 25 (6.3) 7 (1.8) 0.3 (0.7) 0.49 0.43 0.81
I enjoyed lifeb 47 (11.8) 57 (14.2) 132 (33.0) 164 (41.0) 1.0 (1.0) 0.36 0.25 0.82
I had crying spells 326 (81.7) 44 (11.0) 20 (5.0) 9 (2.3) 0.3 (0.7) 0.42 0.35 0.81
I felt sad 208 (52.4) 116 (29.2) 55 (13.9) 18 (4.5) 0.7 (0.9) 0.65 0.58 0.80
I felt that people disliked me 347 (86.8) 44 (11.0) 9 (2.3) 0 0.2 (0.4) 0.43 0.39 0.81
I could not get “going” 297 (74.3) 66 (16.5) 30 (7.5) 7 (1.8) 0.4 (0.7) 0.44 0.36 0.81
  1. a0 = Rarely or none of the time (<1 day); 1 = Some or a little of the time (1–2 days); 2 = Occasionally or a moderate amount of the time (3–4 days); 3 = Most or all of the time (5–7 days)
  2. bItems were reversed before calculating mean, median, correlation and alpha
  3. Item-means were used to calculate score for item (number of missing): 2(2), 3(2), 5(1), 6(1), 8(1), 10(4), 11(1), 12(2), 15(3), 17(1), 18(3)