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Table 1 Description of the study population by coexisting chronic physical condition type among medicaid beneficiaries with type 2 diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed depression. Multi-state medicaid claims database – 2000–2008

From: Depression treatment decreases healthcare expenditures among working age patients with comorbid conditions and type 2 diabetes mellitus along with newly-diagnosed depression

   All Dominant Concordant only Discordant only Both concordant & discordant Sig
   N % N % N % N % N %  
All   5295   753 14.2 1444 27.3 834 15.8 2264 42.8 ***
Predisposing factors
 Age            
  18–44 1335 25.2 122 9.1 426 31.9 256 19.2 531 39.8  
  45–54 1921 36.3 277 14.4 457 23.8 317 16.5 870 45.3  
  55–64 2039 38.5 354 17.4 561 27.5 261 12.8 863 42.3  
 Sex             ***
  Female 3565 67.3 437 12.3 949 26.6 613 17.2 1566 43.9  
  Male 1730 32.7 316 18.3 495 28.6 221 12.8 698 40.3  
 Race            **
  White 1420 26.8 203 14.3 369 26.0 251 17.7 597 42.0  
  AA 1596 30.1 240 15.0 396 24.8 250 15.7 710 44.5  
  Other 2279 43.0 310 13.6 679 29.8 333 14.6 957 42.0  
Need factor
 Other mental health conditions            ***
  Yes 1877 35.4 349 18.6 476 25.4 294 15.7 758 40.4  
  No 3418 64.6 404 11.8 968 28.3 540 15.8 1506 44.1  
Enabling factors
 Medicaid eligibility - poverty           **
  Yes 4620 87.3 1237 26.8 708 15.3 2014 43.6 661 14.3  
  No 675 12.7 207 30.7 126 18.7 250 37.0 92 13.6  
 Medicaid eligibility - Medical Need          *
  Yes 638 12.0 181 28.4 108 16.9 238 37.3 111 17.4  
  No 4657 88.0 1263 27.1 726 15.6 2026 43.5 642 13.8  
 Medicaid eligibility - Waiver           
  Yes 300 5.7 89 29.7 60 20.0 114 38.0 37 12.3  
  No 4995 94.3 1355 27.1 774 15.5 2150 43.0 716 14.3  
Personal health practices
 Oral Antidiabetic Drugs (OADs)          ***
  1 1508 28.5 171 11.3 422 28.0 272 18.0 643 42.6  
  2 1238 23.4 144 11.6 353 28.5 214 17.3 527 42.6  
  3+ 450 8.5 38 8.4 156 34.7 63 14.0 193 42.9  
  None 2099 39.6 400 19.1 513 24.4 285 13.6 901 42.9  
 Insulin Use            ***
  Yes 1827 34.5 277 15.2 512 28.0 148 8.1 890 48.7  
  No 3468 65.5 476 13.7 932 26.9 686 19.8 1374 39.6  
 Polypharmacy            ***
  Yes 1915 36.2 293 15.3 345 18.0 295 15.4 982 51.3  
  No 3380 63.8 460 13.6 1099 32.5 539 15.9 1282 37.9  
 Inpatient hospitalization           ***
  Yes 2604 49.2 534 20.5 532 20.4 232 8.9 1306 50.2  
  No 2691 50.8 219 8.1 912 33.9 602 22.4 958 35.6  
 Outpatient visits            ***
  1st quartile 1392 26.3 85 6.1 588 42.2 294 21.1 425 30.5  
  2nd quartile 1221 23.1 139 11.4 352 28.8 215 17.6 515 42.2  
  3rd quartile 1352 25.5 227 16.8 282 20.9 180 13.3 663 49.0  
  4th quartile 1330 25.1 302 22.7 222 16.7 145 10.9 661 49.7  
   Mean ± SE Mean ± SE Mean ± SE Mean ± SE Mean ± SE  
Number of T2DM-related office visits 6.93 ± 0.13 7.98 ± 0.29 6.51 ± 0.29 5.44 ± 0.21 7.40 ± 0.19  
Number of ER visits 1.18 ± 0.03 1.65 ± 0.11 0.66 ± 0.04 0.78 ± 0.05 1.51 ± 0.05  
External environment
 State            ***
  Illinois 1502 28.4 211 14.0 379 25.2 256 17.0 656 43.7  
  New York 2550 48.2 402 15.8 725 28.4 405 15.9 1018 39.9  
  Texas 1243 23.5 140 11.3 340 27.4 173 13.9 590 47.5  
 HPSA- mental health care            *
  Yes 4405 83.2 651 14.8 1209 27.4 679 15.4 1866 42.4  
  No 890 16.8 102 11.5 235 26.4 155 17.4 398 44.7  
 Metro            **
  Yes 4719 89.1 698 14.8 1291 27.4 730 15.5 2000 42.4  
  No 576 10.9 55 9.5 153 26.6 104 18.1 264 45.8  
 CMHC            
  Yes 2590 48.9 376 14.5 702 27.1 393 15.2 1119 43.2  
  No 2705 51.1 377 13.9 742 27.4 441 16.3 1145 42.3  
 FQHC            **
  Yes 4365 82.4 651 14.9 1199 27.5 674 15.4 1841 42.2  
  No 930 17.6 102 11.0 245 26.3 160 17.2 423 45.5  
 Median income            **
  1st quartile 1312 24.8 145 11.1 365 27.8 204 15.5 598 45.6  
  2nd quartile 1415 26.7 199 14.1 378 26.7 246 17.4 592 41.8  
  3rd quartile 1235 23.3 182 14.7 345 27.9 190 15.4 518 41.9  
  4th quartile 1333 25.2 227 17.0 356 26.7 194 14.6 556 41.7  
 % with GT 4 years college education > 16%a            **
  Yes 4399 83.1 656 14.9 1197 27.2 704 16.0 1842 41.9  
  No 896 16.9 97 10.8 247 27.6 130 14.5 422 47.1  
 % below poverty level GT 11.1%b    753   1444   834   2264   
  Yes 4692 88.6 675 14.4 1284 27.4 732 15.6 2001 42.6  
  No 603 11.4 78 12.9 160 26.5 102 16.9 263 43.6  
   Mean ± SE Mean ± SE Mean ± SE Mean ± SE Mean ± SE  
 Density of Social Workers 3.01 ± 0.02 3.27 ± 0.06 3.02 ± 0.04 3.02 ± 0.06 2.91 ± 0.04  
  1. Note: Study sample was comprised of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 18–64 years with at least one coexisting dominant, concordant, or discordant chronic physical condition and who were alive, not dually eligible for Medicare, and continuously enrolled in fee-for-service Medicaid for at least 24 months (N = 5295); includes Medicaid data from three states: Illinois, Texas, New York
  2. Asterisks (*) represent significant differences in study population characteristics and coexisting chronic physical condition categories (e.g. Dominant, Concordant Only, Discordant Only, and Both Concordant and Discordant), derived from chi-square statistics
  3. ***P < .001; **.001 ≤ P < .01; *.01 ≤ P < .05
  4. a16 % cutoff was chosen based on 2000 Census Education attainment results
  5. b11.1 % cutoff was chosen based on 1999 Census Poverty in people aged 18–64 years results
  6. HPSA Health Professional Shortage Area, CMHC Community Mental Health Clinic, FQHC Federally Qualified Health Clinic, GT Greater Than