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Table 3 Frequency of adverse drug events according to drug class

From: The epidemiology of adverse drug events and medication errors among psychiatric inpatients in Japan: the JADE study

Drug Class ADEs, n (%)
(n = 955)
Preventable ADEs, n (%)
(n = 166)
Non-preventable ADEs, n (%)
(n = 789)
Potential ADEs, n (%)
(n = 186)
Intercepted potential ADEs, n (%)
(n = 23)
Non-intercepted potential ADEs, n (%) (n = 163)
Antibiotics 10 (1.0) 0 (0) 10 (1.3) 2 (1.1) 0 (0) 2 (1.2)
Antihypertensives 14 (1.5) 3 (1.8) 11 (1.4) 7 (3.8) 1 (4.3) 6 (3.7)
Cardiovascular drugs 8 (0.8) 1 (0.6) 7 (0.9) 12 (6.5) 2 (8.7) 10 (6.1)
Anticoagulants 9 (0.9) 2 (1.2) 7 (0.9) 1 (0.5) 0 (0) 1 (0.6)
Antihyperlipidemics 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Antidiabetics 10 (1.0) 2 (1.2) 8 (1.0) 9 (4.8) 1 (4.3) 8 (4.9)
Peptic ulcer drugs 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Laxatives 40 (4.2) 10 (6.0) 30 (3.8) 7 (3.8) 0 (0) 7 (4.3)
NSAIDs 6 (0.6) 0 (0) 6 (0.8) 7 (3.8) 0 (0) 7 (4.3)
Antiallergic agents 2 (0.2) 0 (0) 2 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Electrolytes or fluids 58 (6.1) 50 (30.1) 8 (1.0) 21 (11.3) 1 (4.3) 20 (12.3)
Chinese herbal medicines 2 (0.2) 0 (0) 2 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Sedatives (benzodiazepine) 66 (6.9) 28 (16.9) 38 (4.8) 53 (28.5) 0 (0) 53 (32.5)
Sedatives (other) 15 (1.6) 4 (2.4) 11 (1.4) 5 (2.7) 1 (4.3) 4 (2.5)
Anxiolytics 31 (3.2) 6 (3.6) 25 (3.2) 5 (2.7) 2 (8.7) 3 (1.8)
Antidepressants (SSRI, SNRI, NaSSA) 58 (6.1) 2 (1.2) 56 (7.1) 4 (2.2) 3 (13.0) 1 (0.6)
Antidepressants (other) 62 (6.5) 6 (3.6) 56 (7.1) 1 (0.5) 1 (4.7) 0 (0)
Mood stabilizers 45 (4.7) 14 (8.4) 31 (3.9) 4 (2.2) 2 (8.7) 2 (1.2)
Antipsychotics (atypical) 323 (33.8) 32 (19.3) 291 (36.9) 34 (18.3) 6 (26.1) 28 (17.2)
Antipsychotics (typical) 125 (13.1) 4 (2.6) 121 (15.3) 1 (0.5) 0 (0) 1 (0.6)
Anticonvulsants 8 (0.8) 1 (0.6) 7 (0.9) 3 (1.6) 0 (0) 3 (1.8)
Anti-parkinsonian drugs 24 (2.5) 0 (0) 24 (3.0) 1 (0.5) 0 (0) 1 (0.6)
Anti-dementia medicines 5 (0.5) 0 (0) 5 (0.6) 1 (0.5) 1 (4.3) 0 (0)
Other drugs 32 (3.4) 1 (0.6) 31 (3.9) 8 (4.3) 2 (8.7) 6 (3.7)
Psychiatric drugsa 762 (79.8) 97 (58.4) 665 (84.3) 112 (60.2) 16 (69.6) 96 (58.9)
Non-psychiatric drugsb 193 (20.2) 69 (41.6) 124 (15.7) 74 (39.8) 7 (30.4) 67 (41.1)
All drugs 955 (100) 166 (100) 789 (100) 186 (100) 23 (100) 163 (100)
  1. ADEs adverse drug events, NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; SNRI serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, NaSSA noradrenergic and specific serotonin antidepressants
  2. aPsychiatric drugs include: sedatives (benzodiazepine), sedatives (other), anxiolytics, antidepressants (SSRI, SNRI, NaSSA), antidepressants (other), mood stabilizers, antipsychotics (atypical), antipsychotics (typical), anticonvulsants, anti-parkinsonian drugs and anti-dementia medicines
  3. bNon-psychiatric drugs include: antibiotics, antihypertensives, cardiovascular drugs, anticoagulants, antihyperlipidemics, antidiabetics, peptic ulcer drugs, laxatives, NSAIDs, antiallergic agents, electrolytes or fluids, Chinese herbal medicines and other drugs