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Table 1 Included study characteristics

From: Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for subthreshold depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Source Participants Screening of subclinical depression Conditions Primary outcome Secondary outcome Follow-up (months) n of sessions Frequency Support
Buhrman et al. [39] Patients with chronic pain for more than 3 months MADRS-S ≥ 10, PRIME-MD 1.iCBT (n = 28) 2.WL (n = 24) MADRS BAI
PDI
ASI
PCS
QOLI
CPAQ
CSQ
MPI
12 8 Once a week Tailored treatment made by therapists;
Weekly feedback email on homework from therapists;
Weekly reminder from the platform
Buntrock et al. [36] Employees (>18 years) CES-D ≥ 16 Without suicidal risk, No MDD and bipolar disorder 1.iCBT (n = 202) 2.AC (n = 204) CES-D SF-12 MCS
PCS
PSMS
PSWQ
6 6 Once or twice a week Weekly email contact with therapists
Buntrock et al. [40] Employees (>18 years) CES-D ≥ 16 Without suicidal risk, No MDD and bipolar disorder 1.iCBT (n = 202) 2.AC (n = 204) CES-D SF-12 MCS
PCS
PSMS
PSWQ
12 6 Once or twice a week Weekly email contact with therapists
Imamura et al. [34] Employees (>18 years) No MDD and bipolar disorder (CIDI) 1.i-CBT (n = 381) 2.WL (n = 381) BDI-II K6
DAS
3,6 6 Once a week Weekly feedback email on homework from therapists;
Weekly reminder from the platform
Mullin et al. [35] Adults (>18 years) Self-identified depressive symptoms without suicidal ideas, PHQ-9 ≤ 19, No psychotic mental illness (MINI) 1. iCBT (n = 31) 2.WL (n = 24) PHQ-9 GAD-7
K-10
SDS
3 5 Once a week Weekly email/phone contact with therapists;
Weekly reminder from the platform
Phillips et al. [31] Employees (>18 years) PHQ-9: Scored 2 or more on five of the 9 items, including Item 1 or Item 2 1.iCBT (n = 171) 2.AC (n = 188) WSAS PHQ-9
CORE10
GAD-7
1.5 5 Once a week No support
Proudfoot et al. [37] Adults (18–75 years) 27 ≤ DASS ≤ 63; without suicidal thoughts, attempts and psychotic symptoms 1. iCBT (n = 242)
2.AC (n = 248) 3.WL (n = 230)
DASS-depression WSAS
DASS-anxiety DASS-stress
3 10 Once a week Weekly phone contact with therapists;
Regular reminder from the platform
Spek et al. [25] Elderly (50–75 years) EDS ≥ 12 Without psychiatric disorder (CIDI) 1.iCBT (n = 102) 2.gCBT (n = 99) 3.WL (n = 100) EDS
BDI
  - 10 Once a week No support
Spek et al. [33] Elderly (50–75 years) EDS ≥ 12
Without psychiatric disorder (CIDI)
1. iCBT (n = 102) 2.gCBT (n = 99) 3.WL (n = 100) EDS
BDI
  12 10 Once a week No support
Titov et al. [41] Elderly (≥60 years) Self-identified depressive symptoms 1. iCBT (n = 27) 2.WL (n = 25) PHQ-9 GAD-7 3, 12 5 Once a week Tailored treatment selected by the system
  1. Note: AC attention control, ASI Anxiety Sensitivity Index, BAI Beck Anxiety Inventory, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, CES-D Centre of Epidemiology Studies-Depression, CIDI Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CORE10 Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation, CPAQ Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, CSQ Coping Strategies Questionnaire, DASS The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, DAS The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, EDS Edinburgh Depression Scale, gCBT group cognitive behavioural therapy, GAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 7 items, GHQ general health questionnaire, iCBT internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy, K-6 Kessler’s 6-item psychological distress scale, K-10 Kessler’s 6-item psychological distress scale, MADRS Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, MINI Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, MPI Multidimensional Pain Inventory, PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PDI Pain Disability Index, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire, PSMS Pearlln Mastery Scale, PSWQ Penn State Worrying Questionnaire,QOLI Quality of Life Inventory, SDS Sheehan Disability Scales, SF-12 MCS SF-12 Health Survey Mental Health Composite Subscale, SF-12 PCS SF-12 Health Survey Physical Health Composite Subscale, WSAS The Work and Social Adjustment Scale, WL waiting list