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Table 3 Logistic regression models, using dichotomized SDQ scores at 5.5 years (dichotomized at > 85th percentile) as the dependent variables and language skills at 3 years as independent variables

From: Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort

  Language score at 3 yearsa Modelsb
N = 775 (84.8 %) Standardized Estimate
Mean (SD) Estimate p-value
Model A Emotional symptoms score at 5.5 years ≤ 9 / N = 1037 (87.6 %) [ref] 0.01 (0.99) 0.03 0.538
Emotional symptoms score at 5.5 years > 9 / N = 147 (12.4 %) 0.04 (1.05)   
Model B Conduct problems score at 5.5 years ≤ 7 / N = 1001 (84.5 %) [ref] 0.05 (0.99) 0.07 0.265
Conduct problems score at 5.5 years > 7 / N = 184 (15.5 %) -0.13 (1.01)   
Model C Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years ≤ 6 / N = 992 (83.8 %) [ref] 0.11 (0.94) -0.12 0.021
Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years > 6 / N = 192 (16.2 %) -0.44 (1.15)   
Model D Peer relationship problems score at 5.5 years ≤ 3 / N = 1016 (85.7 %) [ref] 0.06 (0.97) 0.02 0.806
Peer relationship problems score at 5.5 years > 3 / N = 169 (14.3 %) -0.20 (1.14)   
Model E Prosocial behavior score at 5.5 years > 11 / N = 997 (84.2 %) [ref] 0.05 (0.97) 0.00 0.937
Prosocial behavior score at 5.5 years ≤ 11 / N = 187 (15.8 %) -0.11 (1.10)   
  Semantic fluency (ELOLA)   
Model C1 Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years ≤ 6 / N = 992 (83.8 %) [ref] 7.0 (3.8) 0.0 0.991
Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years > 6 / N = 192 (16.2 %) 6.1 (4.0)   
  Word and nonword repetition (ELOLA)   
Model C2 Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years ≤ 6 / N = 992 (83.8 %) [ref] 7.8 (3.2) -0.07 0.214
Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years > 6 / N = 192 (16.2 %) 6.8 (3.5)   
  Sentence repetition (NEPSY)   
Model C3 Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years ≤ 6 / N = 992 (83.8 %) [ref] 7.4 (3.3) -0.09 0.109
Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years > 6 / N = 192 (16.2 %) 5.8 (3.2)   
  Picture naming (ELOLA)   
Model C4 Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years ≤ 6 / N = 992 (83.8 %) [ref] 7.1 (1.8) -0.06 0.220
Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years > 6 / N = 192 (16.2 %) 6.4 (2.3)   
  Comprehension of instructions (NEPSY)   
Model C5 Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years ≤ 6 / N = 992 (83.8 %) [ref] 8.8 (2.9) -0.11 0.030
Hyperactivity-inattention score at 5.5 years > 6 / N = 192 (16.2 %) 7.4 (3.1)   
  1. P-values in bold are statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  2. aLanguage score (z-score) at 3 years was calculated as the linear combination of the weighted language measures at 3 years (weighted by the loading of each variable on the language factor)
  3. bAdjusted for pre- and postnatal environmental factors, performance IQ (WPPSI-III), SDQ scores at 3 years, recruitment center and age of the child at the time of testing at 3 years