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Table 2 Total PMH and domain scores across socio-demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Positive mental health in outpatients: comparison within diagnostic groups

  Total PMH Score General coping Emotional support Spirituality Interpersonal skills Personal growth and autonomy Global affect
  Mean ± SD P Mean ± SD P Mean ± SD P Mean ± SD P Mean ± SD P Mean ± SD P Mean ± SD P
Overall Sample 3.93 ± 0.95   3.84 ± 1.14   3.95 ± 1.33   3.98 ± 1.47   4.25 ± 1.04   3.94 ± 1.15   3.67 ± 1.17  
Age group
 21–39 years 3.79 ± 0.95 0.002 3.65 ± 1.19 0.001 3.92 ± 1.31 0.646 3.74 ± 1.54 0.001 4.16 ± 1.02 0.102 3.70 ± 1.19 <0.001 3.57 ± 1.18 0.075
 40–65 years 4.10 ± 0.91   4.04 ± 1.04   3.99 ± 1.35   4.23 ± 1.35   4.34 ± 1.06   4.21 ± 1.03   3.79 ± 1.15  
Gender
 Male 3.88 ± 0.94 0.213 3.86 ± 1.13 0.670 3.78 ± 1.35 0.010 3.89 ± 1.49 0.257 4.21 ± 1.06 0.510 3.91 ± 1.14 0.613 3.61 ± 1.16 0.304
 Female 4.00 ± 0.95   3.81 ± 1.13   4.13 ± 1.29   4.07 ± 1.45   4.29 ± 1.02   3.97 ± 1.15   3.73 ± 1.17  
Ethnicity
 Chinese 3.83 ± 0.92 0.089 3.70 ± 1.11 0.170 4.09 ± 1.30 0.056 3.54 ± 1.54 <0.001a,b 4.24 ± 0.97 0.674 3.79 ± 1.16 0.130 3.64 ± 1.12 0.868
 Malay 4.10 ± 0.93   3.96 ± 1.19   4.02 ± 1.32   4.50 ± 1.23   4.32 ± 1.03   4.05 ± 1.12   3.72 ± 1.12  
 Indian 3.92 ± 0.98   3.89 ± 1.10   3.70 ± 1.37   4.04 ± 1.42   4.20 ± 1.15   4.02 ± 1.14   3.67 ± 1.27  
Marital status
 Single 3.84 ± 0.98 0.043c 3.75 ± 1.19 0.289 3.86 ± 1.33 0.005c,d 3.86 ± 1.50 0.236 4.12 ± 1.05 0.013c 3.80 ± 1.19 0.026c 3.67 ± 1.17 0.498
 Married 4.12 ± 0.88   3.95 ± 1.07   4.28 ± 1.22   4.12 ± 1.41   4.48 ± 0.95   4.15 ± 1.09   3.75 ± 1.16  
 Separated/Divorced/Widowed 3.91 ± 0.89   3.92 ± 1.05   3.62 ± 1.42   4.11 ± 1.46   4.27 ± 1.11   4.03 ± 1.02   3.52 ± 1.18  
Highest education level
 Some formal/Primary education 3.71 ± 1.09 0.232 3.55 ± 1.13 0.114 3.67 ± 1.42 0.330 1.42 ± 0.23 0.344 3.80 ± 1.29 0.030e 3.80 ± 1.28 0.340 3.66 ± 1.23 0.472
 Secondary/Junior College/Pre U 3.97 ± 0.94   3.90 ± 1.15   3.93 ± 1.32   4.08 ± 1.50   4.30 ± 1.02   3.98 ± 1.13   3.65 ± 1.14  
 Vocational 4.00 ± 0.90   3.86 ± 1.12   4.22 ± 1.22   3.84 ± 1.46   4.22 ± 0.93   3.94 ± 1.13   3.93 ± 1.16  
 Tertiary 3.78 ± 0.81   3.56 ± 0.97   4.03 ± 1.28   3.61 ± 1.42   4.30 ± 0.90   3.71 ± 1.13   3.48 ± 1.15  
 Post Graduate 4.39 ± 1.15   4.38 ± 1.37   4.41 ± 1.87   4.18 ± 1.24   4.85 ± 0.95   4.54 ± 1.01   3.97 ± 1.78  
Current employment status
 Unemployed 3.85 ± 0.10 0.048 3.70 ± 1.17 0.009 3.87 ± 1.33 0.171 4.01 ± 1.45 0.621 4.08 ± 1.05 <0.001 3.85 ± 1.17 0.076 3.61 ± 1.17 0.201
 Employed 4.05 ± 0.87   4.02 ± 1.06   4.06 ± 1.32   3.93 ± 1.50   4.46 ± 0.10   4.06 ± 1.10   3.76 ± 1.13  
Diagnostic group
 Schizophrenia spectrum disorders 4.24 ± 0.89 <0.001f,g 4.11 ± 1.08 0.001f,g 4.20 ± 1.24 0.001f,h 4.44 ± 1.23 <0.001 4.31 ± 1.06 0.498 4.16 ± 1.09 0.007f 4.23 ± 1.02 <0.001f,g
 Depressive disorders 3.70 ± 0.92   3.66 ± 1.10   3.62 ± 1.36   3.78 ± 1.52   4.17 ± 1.07   3.75 ± 1.13   3.25 ± 1.07  
 Anxiety disorders 3.80 ± 0.95   3.64 ± 1.21   4.11 ± 1.31   3.49 ± 1.57   4.29 ± 0.97   3.87 ± 1.21   3.41 ± 1.19  
  1. Significant difference was set at P < 0.05 derived from independent t-test and one way ANOVA test
  2. Bonferroni post hoc test:
  3. aSignificant difference between Malay vs Chinese
  4. bSignificant difference between Indian vs Chinese
  5. cSignificant difference between Married vs Single
  6. dSignificant difference between Married vs Separated/Divorced/Widowed
  7. eSignificant difference between Some formal/Primary education vs Secondary/Junior College/Pre U
  8. fSignificant difference between Depressive disorders vs Schizophrenia spectrum disorders
  9. gSignificant difference between Anxiety disorders vs Schizophrenia spectrum disorders
  10. hSignificant difference between Depressive disorders vs Anxiety disorders