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Table 3 Synthesis of the main significant results regarding patients’ demographic, social and economic characteristics

From: Pre-discharge factors predicting readmissions of psychiatric patients: a systematic review of the literature

Variables Number of studies resulted significant/Number of studies analysing the variable Main significant resultsa
Main significant resultsa
Age 15/44 Mixed direction (10) Older age protective (8)b
Gender 13/46 Mixed direction (10) Mixed direction (8)
Marital status 9/28 Being married protective factor (5) Being married protective factor (5)
Living situation/number of cohabitant/residential stability 5/20 Mixed direction (4) Homelessness risk factor (1) Mixed direction (4)
Education level 4/14 Mixed direction (3) For involuntary hospitalization: education protective factor (1)
Employment status 5/15 Unemployment risk factor (5) No significant results
Ethnical group/immigration status 6/29 Being black risk factor (2) Mixed direction (6)
Financial status 1/6 Higher financial means protective factor (1) Higher financial means protective factor (1)
Receiving benefits (pension or for a service-connected disability or other welfare benefits) 5/6 Receiving benefits risk factor (3)c Service-connected disability risk factor (1)
Forensic and violence issues 1/3 Violence history protective factor (1) No significant results
Military situation 1/2 No significant results Non-service connected disability and highest income or a non-veteran protective factor (1)
  1. aThe number of significant results (when present) is reported in brackets for each variable. Please note that such numbers refer to the papers, and that more than one variable in the same row could be analysed in the same paper; moreover, not all studies conduct both bivariate and multivariate analysis
  2. “Mixed direction” means that the variable resulted significant in more than one paper, but the results were contrasting
  3. bplus two cases of not monotonic direction; cplus one case with contrary result