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Table 2 Participants’ smoking related characteristicsa

From: Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit smoking in South African male psychiatric inpatients

Variable Overall (n = 106) Occasional smoker (n = 19) Daily smoker (n = 87) p
Age years (SD) 30.1 (9.4) 27.7 (7.9) 30.7 (9.7) 0.21
Diagnosis
 Schizophrenia 49 10 39  
 SIPD 25 2 23  
 Bipolar 11 1 10  
 Schizoaffective 12 2 10 0.180
 Schizophreniform 6 3 3  
 Psychosis due to AMC 3 1 2  
Cigarettes smoked per day
 ≤ 10 46 (43.4) 11 (57.9) 35 (40.2)  
 11–20 42 (39.6) 5 (26.3) 37 (42.5) 0.227
 21–30 11 (10.4) 3 (15.8) 8 (9.2)  
 ≥ 31 7 (6.6) 0 (0.0% 7 (8.0)  
Nicotine dependence
 0–2 (Very low) 11 (10.4) 4 (21.1) 7 (8.0) 0.093
 3–4 (Low) 18 (17) 4 (21.1) 14 (16.1)  
 5 (Moderate) 18 (17) 3 (15.8) 15 (17.2)  
 6–7 (High) 41 (38.7) 8 (42.1) 33 (37.9)  
 8–10 (Very high) 18 (17) 0 (0.0) 18 (20.7)  
FTND score, mean (SD) 5.4 (2.2) 4.3 (2.4) 5.7 (2.1) 0.009
Cigarette would hate most to give up
 First one in morning 79 (74.5 12 (63.2) 67 (77.0) 0.248
 Any other 27 (25.5) 7 (36.8) 20 (23.0)  
How soon after waking up do you smoke your first cigarette
 Within 5 min 5 (4.7) 0 5 (5.7) 0.528
 5–30 min 32 (30.2) 5 (26.3) 27 (31.0)  
 31–60 min 56 (52.8) 10 (52.6) 46 (52.9)  
 Other 13 (12.3) 4 (21.1) 9 (10.3)  
Is it difficult to refrain from smoking in “no-smoking” places
 Yes 56 (52.8) 4 (21.1) 52 (59.8)  
 No 50 (47.2) 15 (78.9) 35 (40.2) 0.002
Do you smoke even when ill bedridden most of the day
 Yes 55 (51.9) 6 (31.6) 49 (56.3) 0.075
 No 51 (48.1) 13 (68.4) 38 (43.7)  
Smoke more frequently first hours after waking than rest of day
 Yes 65 (61.3) 8 (12.3) 57 (87.7) 0.071
 No 41 (38.7) 11 (57.9) 30 (34.5)  
Perception on smoking
 Negative 25 (23.6) 6 (31.6) 19 (21.8)  
 Positive 76 (71.7) 12 (63.2) 64 (73.6) 0.218
 Neutral 5 (4.7) 1 (5.3) 4 (4.6)  
Attempted to quit in the past 12 months
 Yes 63 (59.4) 16 (84.2) 47 (54.0) 0.019
 No 43 (40.6) 3 (15.8) 40 (46.0)  
Advised to quit smoking by health worker in past 12 months
 Yes 46 (43.4) 11 (57.9) 35 (40.2) 0.299
 No 58 (54.7) 8 (42.1) 50 (57.5)  
  1. aResults are presented as count (%) unless specified otherwise. AMC another medical condition