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Table 2 Independent t – tests for baseline scores

From: Diaphragmatic breathing during virtual reality exposure therapy for aviophobia: functional coping strategy or avoidance behavior? a pilot study

  VRET + breathing VRET  
Questionnaires M (SD) M (SD) df t p
ASI (0–4) 1.35 (.43) 1.28 (.62) 27 0.32 .75
FFS (0–4) 2.65 (.45) 2.35 (.78) 27 1.25 .23
Time spent reading the information booklet (min.) 45.7 (20.1) 37.9 (27.0) 27 0.89 .33
  1. Note. Means, Standard Deviations in brackets and also df-, t- and p-Values are given. M mean; SD standard deviation; df degrees of freedom; VRET Virtual reality exposure therapy; ASI Anxiety Sensitivity Index; FFS Fear of Flying Scale. T - values show the comparison of means between the VRET + breathing group and the VRET group before exposure