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Table 2 Prediction of depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety in a German representative sample by loneliness controlling for demographic variables and other sources of distress (N = 15,010)

From: Loneliness in the general population: prevalence, determinants and relations to mental health

  Depression (PHQ-8) Anxiety (GAD-2) Suicidal ideation
Variables OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Loneliness 1.91 1.74-2.09 < 0.0001 1.21 1.09-1.34 0.0002 1.31 1.19-1.44 <0.0001
Age 0.99 0.98-0.99 0.0004 0.98 0.98-0.99 0.0002 1.03 1.02-1.03 <0.0001
Women 0.94 0.80-1.10 0.4209 1.25 1.06-1.49 0.01 0.92 0.79-1.08 0.3127
Partnership 0.92 0.76-1.11 0.3731 1.02 0.83-1.25 0.8771 0.80 0.67-0.95 0.0117
Socioeconomic status 0.94 0.92-0.96 < 0.0001 0.97 0.97-0.98 0.0043 0.96 0.95-0.98 0.0001
Generalized anxiety 2.91 2.73-3.11 < 0.0001 -    1.30 1.21-1.39 <.0001
Panic attack 2.98 2.42-3.67 < 0.0001 2.69 2.17-3.34 < 0.0001 1.49 1.19-1.86 0.0005
depression -    1.46 1.42-1.49 < 0.0001 1.29 1.26-1.32 < 0.0001
c-statistic 0.90 0.91 0.87
  1. Note: OR Odds ratio, 95% CI = 95% confidence interval