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Table 2 Comparisons of catastrophic trauma events (based on HTQ) between cases and controls

From: Severe war-related trauma and personality pathology: a case-control study

Type of severe traumatic event (based on Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) Cases (IPDE positive)
N = 182
Controls (IPDE negative)
N = 86
Proportion difference (95% CI of the difference)
Being under sniper fire N (%) 100 (55.2) 11 (12.8) 0.42 (0.31 to 0.51)**
Witnessed burned or disfigured bodies N (%) 85 (47.0) 7 (2.6) 0.39 (0.28 to 0.47)**
Murder or death due to violence of other family members (not spouse or a child) or friends N (%) 58 (32.2) 8 (9.3) 0.23 (0.12 to 0.31)**
Ran into an ambush N (%) 62 (34.1) 3 (3.5) 0.31(0.22 to 0.38) **
Witnessed torture N (%) 33 (18.1) 1 (1.2) 0.17 (0.10 to 0.23) **
Witness killing or murder N (%) 33 (18.3) 0 (0) 0.18 (0.12 to 0.24) **
Serious physical injury from combat or landmine N (%) 24 (13.3) 1 (1.2) 0.12 (0.05 to 0.18) **
Other types of sexual abuse or sexual humiliation (excluding rape) N (%) 11 (6.1) 0 (0.0) 0.06 (0.01 to 0.11)*
Torture N (%) 11 (6.1) 0 (0.0) 0.06 (0.01 to 0.11)*
Forced to find and burry bodies of the dead N (%) 10 (5.5) 0 (0.0) 0.06 (0.01 to 0.09)*
Solitary confinement N (%) 9 (4.9) 0 (0.0) 0.05 (0.001 to 0.09)
Forced to harm others N (%) 9 (4.9) 0 (0.0) 0.05 (0.001 to 0.09)
Murder or death due to violence of son or daughter N (%) 3 (1.6) 2 (2.3) 0.01 (−0.03 to 0.06)
Rape N (%) 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0.01 (−0.03 to 0.04)
Kidnapped N (%) 1 (0.5) 1 (1.2) 0.01 (−0.03 to 0.04)
Murder or death due to violence of spouse N (%) 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0.01 (−0.02 to 0.06)
Witnessed rape or sexual abuse N (%) 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0.01 (−0.03 to 0.04)
  1. * p < 0.05 X2 test for difference in proportions with 1 degree of freedom
  2. ** p < 0.001 X2 test for difference in proportions with 1 degree of freedom