Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of characteristics of included studies

From: Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID Location Study design (Period) Participants (Gender, male%) Age range in years (Mean ± SD) Definition of ADHD symptoms Allergic diseases types Outcome measurements
Chen 2013 [33] Taiwan Case-control (1996-2010) N = 39, 880
ADHD: n = 5811; Tic alone: n = 1816; ADHD and Tic: n = 349; general population n = 31,904 (76%; 77.4%)
ADHD: (15 ± 81) Control: (17 ± 17) ADHD was diagnosed according to ICD-9-CM code by psychiatrists. • Asthma
• Allergic rhinitis
• Atopic dermatitis
• Allergic conjunctivitis
Allergic diseases were classified according to ICD-9-CM codes by internists/pediatrician.
Hak 2013 [34] UK Nested case-control
(1996-2006)
N = 4, 420
ADHD: n = 884; control: n = 3536 (Restricted to male only)
4 to14 years Based on medical records of first-time diagnosis of ADHD (at least one recorded prescription of ADHD drug) • Asthma
• Allergic rhinitis
• Atopic dermatitis
• Any atopic disorder
• Unspecific allergies
• Food allergy
• Cow’s milk intolerance
Diagnoses of atopic disorders, asthma were done based on codes recorded on medical histories
Kwon 2014 [36] Korea Cross sectional (not specified: data collected all year long) N = 4113
ADHD: n = 549; control: n = 3564
(75.2%; 47.9%)
7 to 8 years Diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, together with epidemiological questionnaires Computerized Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic System, the abbreviated Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and DuPaul’s ADHD Rating Scales. • Asthma
• Allergic rhinitis
• Atopic dermatitis
• Allergic conjunctivitis
• Food allergy
Drug allergy
Measured by questionnaires, International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), for asthmatic symptoms/skin rashes/sneezing
Romanos 2010 [37] Germany Retrospective cross sectional (2003-2006) N = 13, 318
ADHD: n = 653; control: n = 12,665 (79.6%; 48.4%)
3 to 17 years Medical examination according to ICD-10 criteria and standardized parental interviews. • Asthma
• Allergic rhinitis
• Atopic eczema
Self reported and medical examination
Suwan 2011 [35] Thailand Case-control (January-November 2010) N = 80
ADHD n = 40; control n = 40 (77.5%; 77.5%)
5 to15 years Diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria by pediatrician • Asthma
• Allergic rhinitis
• Eczema
• Allergic conjunctivitis
• Urticaria
• Food allergy
Evaluated by history and physical examination and skin prick tests