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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population at baseline (n = 501)

From: Leukocyte telomere length and depression, anxiety and stress and adjustment disorders in primary health care patients

Variables Patients (n = 181) Control subjects (n = 320) P-value
Age, years
 Mean (SD) 41.9 (11.1) 44.6 (12.5) 0.02a
Sex, n (%)
 Male 22 (12) 197 (62) <0.0001b
 Female 159 (88) 123 (38)
Telomere length
 Mean (SD) 0.77 (0.12) 0.81 (0.14) 0.006a
BMI, n (%)c
 Underweight 2 (1.1)   
 Normal weight 70 (39) N/A N/A
 Overweight 56 (31)   
 Obese 44 (24)   
Smoking status, n (%)d
 Yes 27 (15) N/A N/A
 No 151 (83)
Alcohol status, n (%)e
 Standard size drinks per week
   < 1 100 (55)   
  1–4 54 (30) N/A N/A
   > =5 22 (12)   
Education, n (%)f
 Low 15 (8)   
 Middle 72 (40) N/A N/A
 High 92 (51)   
Antidepressants, n (%)g
 Yes 63 (35) N/A N/A
 No 102 (56)
Tranquilizers, n (%)h
 Yes 27 (15) N/A N/A
 No 131 (72)
Baseline MADRS-S
 Median score (IQR) 20 (14–25) N/A N/A
Baseline HAD-D
 Median score (IQR) 8 (6–11) N/A N/A
Baseline HAD-A
 Median score (IQR) 12 (9–15) N/A N/A
Baseline PHQ-9
 Median score (IQR) 13 (9–17) N/A N/A
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard Deviation, BMI Body Mass Index, IQR Interquartile Range, N/A Not Available
  2. Education: Low = 0–9 years; Middle = 10–12 years; High = More than 12 years
  3. a P-value is given for the comparison of patients and control subjects using independent sample t-test
  4. b P-value is based on Chi-square test
  5. c9 (5%) had missing on BMI
  6. d3 (2%) had missing on smoking status
  7. e5 (3%) had missing on alcohol status
  8. f2 (1%) had missing on education
  9. g16 (9%) had missing on antidepressants
  10. h23 (13%) had missing on tranquilizers