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Table 1 Means (SD) for background- and patient variables for patients with bipolar disorder I (BD I), patients with bipolar disorder II (BD II), and healthy controls (HC)

From: Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome

  BD I (n = 110) BD II (n = 85) HC (n = 86)
Sex (male/female) 40/70 28/57 38/48
Agea 38(13) 39(13) 38(14)
MADRSa* 5(5) 9(8) 1(2)
YMRSa 1(2) 1(2) 0.45(1)
GAF functiona 68(10) 67(10)  
GAF symptoma 68(11) 66(10)  
Age at disorder onseta 20(10) 19(12)  
Presence of hypomania/mania (no/yes)b 41/38 39/27  
Presence of depression (no/yes)b 32/47 19/47  
Presence of violence/suicide attempt (no/yes)b 71/7 59/6  
No of sick leave daysb 282 298  
  1. aBaseline, bFollow-up assessment 2 years after the assessment with SSP at baseline. Data were not available for all participants. *Univariate ANOVA conducted on MADRS scores revealed significant group differences; (F (2, 242) = 36.63, p < 0.001, partial η 2= 0.229. Post hoc analyses (Games Howell) showed that the three groups differed with regard to depressive symptoms, BD II > BD I > HC