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Table 2 Results of ANCOVAs on the SSP scales in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder I (BD I), patients with bipolar disorder II (BD II), and healthy controls (HC)

From: Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome

  F(2,(df)) p Partial Ƞ 2 Pairwise Comparisonsa
Neuroticism
 Embitterment 30.35 (247) 0.000 0.20 HC < BD I, BD II
 Stress susceptibility 26.7 (247) 0.000 0.18 HC < BD I, BD II
 Somatic trait anxiety 17.54 (247) 0.000 0.13 HC < BD I, BD II
 Psychic trait anxiety 25.19 (247) 0.000 0.20 HC < BD I, BD II
 Mistrust 7.94 (247) 0.000 0.06 HC < BD I, BD II
 Lack of assertiveness 0.90 (247) 0.410 0.01 -
Aggressiveness
 Trait irritability 14.18 (248) 0.000 0.10 HC < BD I, BD II
 Verbal trait aggression 6.65 (248) 0.002 0.05 HC < BD I, BD II
 Physical trait aggression 3.45 (248) 0.033 0.03 HC < BD I, BD II
 Social desirability 2.49 (248) 0.085 0.02 HC > BD I
Disinhibition
 Impulsiveness 19.66 (248) 0.000 0.14 HC < BD I, BD II
 Adventure seeking 5.12 (248) 0.007 0.04 HC < BD I, BD II
 Detachment 1.56 (248) 0.211 0.01 -
  1. a No adjustment of alpha levels. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level