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Table 1 Psychiatric comorbid disorders and substance dependences at the start of opioid maintenance treatmenta

From: Polydrug abuse among opioid maintenance treatment patients is related to inadequate dose of maintenance treatment medicine

  Total
(n = 60)
Inadequate dose,
n = 39 (65.0%)
Adequate dose,
n = 21 (35.0%)
Number of groups of comorbid psychiatric disorders 1.3 ± 0.70 (0–3) 1.28 ± 0.69 (0–3) 1.33 ± 0.73 (0–3)
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorder 30 (50.0%) 19 (31.7%) 11 (18.3%)
Mood disorder 9 (15.0%) 5 (8.3%) 4 (6.7%)
Anxiety disorder 10 (16.7%) 6 (10.0%) 4 (6.7%)
Disorders usually first diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescenceb 2 (3.3%) 2 (3.3%) 0 (0%)
Eating disorderc 1 (1.7%) 1 (1.7%) 0 (0%)
Personality disorder 26 (43.3%) 17 (28.3%) 9 (15.0%)
Number of groups of non-opioid drug dependences 1.40 ± 0.89 (0–3) 1.41 ± 0.85 (0–3) 1.38 ± 0.97 (0–3)
Non-opioid drug dependency 51 (85.0%) 35 (58.3%) 16 (26.7%)
Sedative-, hypnotic-, or anxiolytic-related disorderd 38 (63.3%) 25 (41.7%) 13 (21.7%)
Amphetamine 19 (31.7%) 13 (21.7%) 6 (10.0%)
Cocaine 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Alcohol 12 (20.0%) 6 (10.0%) 6 (10.0%)
Cannabis 6 (10%) 2 (3.3%) 4 (6.7%)
Medications 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Polysubstance-related disordere 3 (5.0%) 3 (5.0%) 0 (0%)
  1. aAll diagnoses are made according to the DSM-IV. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of patients
  2. bOne patient with Mild Mental Retardation and one patient with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  3. cOne patient with Bulimia Nervosa
  4. dTwo patients with pregabalin dependence
  5. ePolysubstance-related disorder was rated as three