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Table 1 Summary of treatment outcomes of importance (as identified by carers)

From: Treatment outcomes in schizophrenia: qualitative study of the views of family carers

Symptom-related outcomes
 ➢ Positive symptoms [50,51,52,53]d
 ➢ Cognitive symptoms [50,51,52,53]d
 ➢ Affective symptoms [50,51,52,53]d
 ➢ Safety d
 ➢ Negative symptoms [51,52,53,54]d
 ➢ Stability (relapse/hospitalisation) [51, 55,56,57]d
 ➢ Side-effects [21, 29, 58,59,60]d
 ➢ Fear/distress/pain d
 ➢ Insight d
Quality of life
 ➢ Motivation and energy [61, 62]d
 ➢ Physical functioning [61, 62]a
 ➢ Life satisfaction [61, 62]b
 ➢ Emotional regulation/Self-control [61, 62]c
 ➢ Stigma [63]c
 ➢ Leading a normal life [50]d /social acceptability [61, 62]d
Functional outcomes
 ➢ Independence [21, 53, 64]d
 ➢ Role functioning/productivityd (family/home/education/work/pets b) [21, 29, 53, 64]
 ➢ Life milestones c
 ➢ ADLs [15, 48]/Self-care [21, 53, 64]d
 ➢ Social / relationships [21, 29, 53, 64]d
 ➢ Leisure pursuits [53, 64] [34, 48]d /getting out d
Personal recovery
 ➢ Developing positive identity [65, 66]d
 ➢ Finding meaning in life [65, 66]c
 ➢ Accepting help/support from others [67]d
 ➢ Learning about (& managing/monitoring) illness/treatment/services [68]d
 ➢ Overcoming ‘stuckness’ [65, 66]d
 ➢ Vulnerability/sensitivity d
 ➢ Aiming for goals/‘new potentials’ [66, 67]c
 ➢ Taking responsibility/decision-making [65]d
 ➢ Developing hope/optimism [65, 67,68,69]c
 ➢ Participating in life-enriching activities [66]c
 ➢ Becoming more empowered [66,67,68]c
 ➢ Personality/temperament d
Physical health and lifestyle
 ➢ Exercise/physical activity c  ➢ Diet/weight d
 ➢ Alcohol/drugs/smoking c  ➢ Routine c
 ➢ Sleepc
Satisfaction with treatment
 ➢ Satisfaction with medication [70]c  ➢ Satisfaction with therapeutic relationship [71]d
  1. Key: Number of interviews in which one or more of the carers referred to the outcome: afew (n = 1–4), bsome (n = 5–10), cmany (n = 11–21), dmost (n ≥ 22). References cited indicate sources where the same treatment outcomes of importance have previously been identified. ADLs = activities of daily living
  2. Outcomes presented in italics have not been described in previous studies but stem directly from the findings of this study