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Table 2 Polysomnographic results on the entire night

From: Similar polysomnographic pattern in primary insomnia and major depression with objective insomnia: a sign of common pathophysiology?

  Mean (SD) Normative (N = 30) Mean (SD) Insomnia (N = 84) Mean (SD) Depression (N = 95) Median (P25-P75) Normative (N = 30) Median (P25-P75) Insomnia (N = 84) Median (P25-P75) Depression (N = 95) P-value
SL (min) 17.81 ± 7.82 41.18 ± 37.04 45.57 ± 35.51 18.25 (10.33–24.5) 29.75 (18.42–54.42) 36.50 (23.33–59.00) <0.001a,b
SE (%) 88.63 ± 3.85 71.63 ± 9.64 72.52 ± 11.43 89.11 (86.09–91.87) 73.49 (68.52–77.73) 75.50 (68.57–79.75) <0.001a,b
SPT (min) 480.79 ± 55.48 432.37 ± 60.84 436.67 ± 67.14 482.17 (433.67–517.00) 429.75 (408.50–467.00) 439.33 (402.00–469.33) 0.001a,b
Duration of 1st, 2nd and 3rd third of the night (min) 160.26 ± 18.49 144.12 ± 20.28 145.56 ± 22.39 160.72 (144.56–172.33) 143.25 (136.17–155.67) 146.44 (134.00–156.44) 0.001a,b
TST (min) 447.57 ± 49.66 352.68 ± 62.13 362.59 ± 72.59 457.34 (409.33–479.00) 360.25 (322.42–393.42) 380.33 (335.00–408.33) <0.001a;b
% stage 1 6.80 ± 2.99 6.98 ± 3.65 6.87 ± 3.83 5.82 (4.65–8.62) 7.20 (3.89–9.13) 6.38 (4.34–8.60) 0.923
% stage 2 55.78 ± 6.64 50.76 ± 8.67 51.50 ± 9.14 56.38 (51.47–61.16) 50.93 (45.61–56.00) 53.03 (47.53–57.55) 0.010a
% SWS 10.53 ± 6.16 6.92 ± 7.32 7.38 ± 6.85 9.46 (4.08–15.31) 4.64 (0.59–11.34) 5.74 (1.51–11.30) 0.009a,b
% REM 20.09 ± 3.21 16.96 ± 5.36 16.59 ± 5.36 19.89 (17.57–22.54) 17.15 (14.11–20.24) 17.14 (12.97–19.42) <0.001a,b
% WASO 6.80 ± 3.37 18.38 ± 10.28 17.65 ± 11.18 6.24 (4.29–8.11) 15.98 (11.94–23.97) 15.99 (10.96–21.54) <0.001a,b
REML 71.49 ± 24.16 85.75 ± 49.82 88.45 ± 57.47 72.5 (53.5–81.5) 69.00 (53.75–109) 70.67 (54.50–101.00) 0.764
Cycles 4.60 ± 0.97 3.83 ± 1.16 3.94 ± 1.20 4.5 (4.00–5.00) 4.00 (3.00–4.00) 4.00 (3.00–5.00) 0.004a,b
Number of awakenings 19.53 ± 5.16 36.25 ± 16.04 37.12 ± 21.46 19.00 (17.00–23.00) 29.00 (24.00–45.50) 29.00 (25.00–41.00) <0.001a,b
        Kruskal-Wallis Test
  1. SL sleep latency, SE sleep efficiency, SPT sleep period time, TST total sleep time, SWS slow-wave sleep, REM Rapid eye movement sleep, WASO wake after sleep onset, REML REM latency
  2. After Bonferroni correction: aNormative vs Insomnia p < 0.05, bNormative vs Depression p < 0.05, cInsomnia vs Depression p < 0.05