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Table 5 Modifications in polysomnographic results between the groups “Depression”, “Insomnia” and “Normative”, adjusted for age and gender and the number of cycle when necessary

From: Similar polysomnographic pattern in primary insomnia and major depression with objective insomnia: a sign of common pathophysiology?

Normative (N = 30) Insomnia (N = 84) Depression (N = 95) ba1(ES) Group “Insomnia” vs. “Normative” ba2(ES) Group “Depression” vs. “Normative” ba3(ES) Group “Insomnia” vs. “Depression” P-value adjusted for age, sex and the number of cycle
REM (%)
 1st third −4.71 (1.60)a −4.46 (1.58)a 0.25 (1.11) 0.001
 2nd third 0.04 (2.86) −0.71 (2.83) −0.75 (1.98) 0.923
 3rd third −5.57 (2.57)a −6.27 (2.54)a −0.70 (1.78) 0.046
Stage 1 (%)
 1st third 0.26 (1.08) 0.97 (1.07) 0.72 (0.75) 0.523
 2nd third 0.19 (1.18) 0.99 (1.17) 0.80 (0.82) 0.532
 3rd third −1.00 (1.17) −0.27 (1.15) 0.73 (0.81) 0.566
Stage 2 (%)
 1st third −8.65 (4.00)a −10.79 (3.96)a −2.14 (2.77) 0.025
 2nd third −10.41 (3.61)a −8.06 (3.58)a 2.36 (2.50) 0.017
 3rd third −7.51 (3.65) −5.13 (3.61) 2.38 (2.53) 0.120
SWS (%)
 1st third −11.65 (2.72)a −11.48 (2.59)a 0.16 (1.88) <0.001
 2nd third −0.36 (2.26) 0.69 (2.24) 1.05 (1.57) 0.798
 3rd third −0.27 (0.39) −0.14 (0.38) 0.12 (0.27) 0.766
     P-value adjusted for age and sex
WASO (%)
 1st third 22.16 (4.82)a 22.10 (4.81)a −0.05 (3.40) <0.001
 2nd third 5.14 (2.76) 2.90 (2.75) - 2.24 (1.95) 0.157
 3rd third 15.69 (4.59)a 11.81 (4.58)a - 3.93 (3.24) 0.003
     a p < 0.05
  1. ba1 (ES)/ba2 (ES): quantile regression coefficient adjusted (standard error). These coefficients are the difference of median adjusted for age, gender and the number of cycle when necessary between “Insomnia”/"Depression” group and the “Normative”
  2. ba3 (ES): quantile regression coefficient adjusted (standard error). These coefficients are the difference of median adjusted for age, gender and the number of cycle when necessary between the “Insomnia” group and “depression” group
  3. SWS slow-wave sleep, REM Rapid eye movement sleep, WASO wake after sleep onset