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Table 1 Baseline sample characteristics

From: The protective role of religiosity against problem gambling: findings from a five-year prospective study

  Overall
(n = 4121)
Males
(n = 1867)
Females
(n = 2253)
Age [M (SD)] 46.1 (14.1) 47.1 (14.7) 45.2 (13.6)
Overall religiositya [M (SD)] 12.1 (7.0) 10.8 (7.1) 13.1 (6.6)
Past year religious service attendanceb [N (%)]
 Missing 162 (3.9) 103 (5.5) 59 (2.6)
 Not at all 1654 (41.8) 758 (43.0) 896 (40.8)
 Low 1307 (33.1) 568 (32.2) 739 (33.7)
 Moderate 462 (11.7) 189 (10.7) 273 (12.4)
 High 536 (13.5) 249 (14.1) 287 (13.1)
Religious affiliation [N (%)]
 Missing 1 (0.0) 1 (0.0)
 Catholic 860 (29.0) 391 (22.3) 469 (22.5)
 Protestant 2269 (55.1) 977 (55.8) 1292 (62.1)
 Agnostic/atheist 331 (8.0) 195 (11.1) 136 (6.5)
 Otherc 372 (9.0) 189 (10.8) 183 (8.8)
 Prefer not to say 288 (7.0) 115 (6.2) 173 (7.7)
Education [N (%)]
 Less than high school 462 (11.2) 236 (12.6) 226 (10.0)
 High school 823 (20.0) 355 (19.0) 468 (20.8)
 Some post-secondary or technical school 1106 (26.8) 561 (30.0) 545 (24.2)
 Completed college/university or more 1730 (42.0) 715 (38.3) 1015 (45.0)
Annual household incomed [N (%)]
 $0 to $39,999.00 1402 (34.0) 557 (29.8) 845 (37.5)
 $40,000.00 to $79,999.00 1716 (41.6) 793 (42.5) 923 (40.9)
 $80,000.00 or more 1003 (24.3) 517 (27.7) 486 (21.6)
Marital status [N (%)]
 Never married 491 (11.9) 236 (12.6) 255 (11.3)
 Married or common-law 2944 (71.4) 1387 (74.3) 1557 (69.1)
 Divorced/separated/widowed 686 (16.6) 244 (13.1) 442 (19.6)
  1. aItems 2–8 of the Rohrbaugh Jessor Religiosity Scale
  2. bLow = categories “once” and “2 to 5 times” in the past year; Moderate = categories “6 to 10 times” and “once or twice a month”; High: categories “once a week” and “more than once a week”
  3. cOther’ religious affiliation includes Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu, Sikh, and other affiliations
  4. d‘Unsure’ responses (n = 129) were replaced by imputed values: if income stable in next 2 data waves then replaced with that value; elsewhere replaced with the mean of values from all other survey waves