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Table 2 Gambling severity categories and mean scores (SD) based on the Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM) across the five data waves

From: The protective role of religiosity against problem gambling: findings from a five-year prospective study

  Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Time 4 Time 5
Overall
 Sample size at given data wave 4120 3939 3901 3829 3799
 Non-gambler [N (%)] 309 (7.5) 298 (7.6) 363 (9.3) 423 (11.0) 406 (10.7)
 Recreational gambler [N (%)] 3111 (75.5) 3092 (78.5) 3034 (77.8) 2978 (77.8) 2951 (77.7)
 At-risk gambler [N (%)] 564 (13.7) 436 (11.1) 401 (10.3) 324 (8.5) 365 (9.6)
 Problem/pathological gambler [N (%)] 136 (3.3) 113 (2.9) 103 (2.6) 104 (2.7) 77 (2.0)
 PPGM scorea [M (SD)] 1.13 (0.57) 1.09 (0.54) 1.06 (0.54) 1.03 (0.55) 1.03 (0.53)
Males
 Sample size at given data wave 1867 1770 1742 1713 1690
 Non-gambler [N (%)] 135 (7.2) 127 (7.2) 165 (9.5) 194 (11.3) 186 (11.0)
 Recreational gambler [N (%)] 1385 (74.2) 1376 (77.7) 1321 (75.8) 1322 (77.2) 1278 (75.6)
 At-risk gambler [N (%)] 281 (15.1) 222 (12.5) 215 (12.3) 149 (8.7) 187 (11.1)
 Problem/pathological gambler [N (%)] 65 (3.5) 45 (2.5) 41 (2.4) 48 (2.8) 39 (2.3)
 PPGM scorea [M (SD)] 1.15 (0.58) 1.10 (0.54) 1.08 (0.55) 1.03 (0.56) 1.05 (0.56)
Females
 Sample size at given data wave 2253 2169 2159 2116 2109
 Non-gambler [N (%)] 174 (7.7) 171 (7.9) 198 (9.2) 229 (10.8) 220 (10.4)
 Recreational gambler [N (%)] 1725 (76.5) 1716 (79.1) 1713 (79.3) 1656 (78.3) 1673 (79.3)
 At-risk gambler [N (%)] 283 (12.6) 214 (9.9) 186 (8.6) 175 (8.3) 178 (8.4)
 Problem/pathological gambler [N (%)] 71 (3.1) 68 (3.1) 62 (2.9) 56 (2.6) 38 (1.8)
 PPGM scorea [M (SD)] 1.11 (0.56) 1.08 (0.54) 1.05 (0.54) 1.03 (0.54) 1.02 (0.51)
  1. a Missing values imputed: Non-gamblers coded to 0; infrequent/low spend gamblers coded to 1. Gambling categories are listed for descriptive purposes only; continuous PPGM scores were used for analyses