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Table 5 Self-Stigma of Depression Scale: Single items and scales according to respondents’ migration background [mean values (standard errors)]

From: Depression stigma and migration – results of a survey from Germany

Imagine you were depressed. How would you feel? Migrant foreign borna (n = 139) Migrant born in Germanya
(n = 225)
Non-migranta (n = 1622) Results of analyses of variance (F, partial η2, p)
Subscale Social Inadequacy 2.57 (0.02) 2.61 (0.06) 2.67 (0.05) F(2,1728) = 1.645, η2 = 0.002, p = 0.193
Feel inferior to other people 2.55 (0.03) 2.50 (0.09) 2.61 (0.07) F(2,1726) = 0.574, η2 = 0.001, p = 0.563
Feel like a burden to other people 2.82 (0.02) 2.94 (0.08) 2.82 (0.06) F(2,1737) = 1.057, η2 = 0.001, p = 0.348
Feel inadequate around other people 2.31 (0.02)b 2.46 (0.08) 2.47 (0.07) F(2,1683) = 3.539, η2 = 0.004, p = 0.029
Feel I couldn’t contribute much socially 2.59 (0.02)b 2.58 (0.08) 2.79 (0.07) F(2,1728) = 4.236, η2 = 0.005, p = 0.015
Subscale Own Responsibility 2.76 (0.02)b 2.89 (0.06) 3.02 (0.05) F(2,1667) = 11.295, η2 = 0.013, p <  0.001
Think I should be able to pull myself together 2.77 (0.02)b 2.89 (0.08) 3.07 (0.07) F(2,1733) = 7.411, η2 = 0.008, p = 0.001
Think I should be able to cope with things 2.75 (0.02)b 2.86 (0.08) 2.97 (0.06) F(2,1698) = 6.179, η2 = 0.007, p = 0.002
Subscale Help-Seeking Inhibition 2.03 (0.02) 2.06 (0.06) 2.14 (0.05) F(2,1767) = 2.213, η2 = 0.002, p = 0.110
Wouldn’t want people to know that I wasn’t coping 2.24 (0.02) 2.24 (0.08) 2.37 (0.07) F(2,1765) = 2.146, η2 = 0.002, p = 0.117
See myself as weak if I took antidepressants 2.14 (0.13) 2.35 (0.09) 2.18 (0.07) F(2,1727) = 2.886, η2 = 0.003, p = 0.056
Feel embarrassed about seeking professional help 1.79 (0.02) 1.79 (0.08) 1.93 (0.07) F(2,1766) = 2.157, η2 = 0.002, p = 0.116
Feel embarrassed if others knew I was seeking professional help 1.97 (0.03) 1.88 (0.09) 2.06 (0.07) F(2,1757) = 1.340, η2 = 0.002, p = 0.262
  1. aMean values adjusted for gender, age and level of education;  statistically significant results (p < 0.05) are italicized; single items and scales ranging from 1 to 4 (‘completely disagree’-‘completely agree’)
  2. bsignificantly different from non-migrant