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Table 3 Weighted bivariate associations between 2008 CES-D10 scores and all area-level and individual-level independent variables

From: The association between neighbourhood-level deprivation and depression: evidence from the south african national income dynamics study

CES-D10 Standardised β SE P > t R 2
SAIMD Composite Index 0.92 0.12 <0.0001 3.5%
SAIMD Income and Material 0.88 0.10 <0.0001 4.7%
SAIMD Employment 0.95 0.12 <0.0001 3.6%
SAIMD Education 0.83 0.14 <0.0001 2.8%
SAIMD Living Environment 0.91 0.12 <0.0001 4.1%
HH Income −0.82 0.10 <0.0001  
  Unstandardised B    
Age 0.02 0.00 <0.0001  
Male −0.91 0.13 <0.0001  
Race [African]
 Coloured −1.57 0.38 <0.0001  
 Asian/Indian −2.01 0.85 0.018  
White −3.20 −0.30 <0.0001  
Marital status [Married]
 Living with partner 1.50 0.26 <0.0001  
 Widow/widower 2.36 0.28 <0.0001  
 Divorced/separated 1.56 0.59 0.008  
 Never married 0.72 0.18 <0.0001  
Gr 9 or more education −1.81 −0.18 <0.0001  
Durable goods −1.50 0.19 <0.0001  
Living deprived 1.28 0.25 <0.0001  
Urban 0.80 0.26 0.002  
Employment status [Employed]
 Not economically active 0.77 0.16 <0.0001  
 Unemployed discouraged 0.90 0.31 0.004  
 Unemployed strict 1.61 0.24 <0.0001  
 Negative life events reported 0.09 0.21 0.677  
  1. Note. A higher CES-D10 score represents more depressive symptoms, therefore a positive coefficient implies more depressive symptoms and a negative coefficient fewer depressive symptoms
  2. Square brackets indicate reference group for categorical variables