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Table 2 MANOVA on psychological distress, depression and anxiety – Unstandardized coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI)

From: Gender differences in mental health problems among adolescents and the role of social support: results from the Belgian health interview surveys 2008 and 2013

  Psychological distress (GHQ 1–12) Depression subscale (1–5) Anxiety subscale (1–5)
  Male Female Male Female Male Female
  b 95% CI b 95% CI b 95% CI b 95% CI b 95% CI b 95% CI
Survey year (2013 vs. 2008) −0.40* [−0.71;−0.09] -0.09 [−0.44;0.27] 0.08** [0.03;0.14] 0.17*** [0.09;0.24] 0.06* [0.01;0.12] 0.15*** [0.07;0.23]
Highest educational level within the household (At least higher education vs. Higher secondary education or lower) 0.09 [−0.25;0.42] 0.31 [−0.09;0.71] 0.01 [−0.05;0.07] −0.02 [−0.11;0.07] −0.02 [−0.07;0.04] 0.01 [−0.08;0.1]
Age (20–25 vs. 15–19) 0.46** [0.15;0.76] 0.10 [−0.26;0.46] 0.02 [−0.04;0.07] 0.02 [−0.06;0.1] 0.03 [−0.03;0.08] 0.07 [−0.01;0.15]
Reported equivalent household income (Belgian weighted quintiles) −0.05 [−0.16;0.07] 0.03 [−0.11;0.16] 0.00 [−0.02;0.02] 0.00 [−0.03;0.03] 0.01 [−0.01;0.03] −0.01 [−0.04;0.02]
Appreciation social contacts (Rather satisfied vs. Rather unsatisfied) −1.85*** [−2.5;-1.21] −1.94*** [−2.73;-1.15] −0.52*** [−0.64;-0.4] −0.49*** [−0.67;-0.32] −0.41*** [−0.52;-0.3] −0.20* [−0.38;-0.03]
Quality of social support (Poor support vs. Intermediate/strong support) −0.48 [−0.97;0] −1.39*** [−1.91;-0.86] −0.24*** [−0.33;-0.15] −0.44*** [−0.55;-0.32] −0.15** [−0.23;-0.07] −0.28*** [−0.4;-0.16]
Constant 3.29*** [2.56;4.02] 4.52*** [3.61;5.43] 1.92*** [1.79;2.05] 2.22*** [2.02;2.43] 1.67*** [1.55;1.8] 1.71*** [1.51;1.92]
N 713   720   713   720   713   720  
R2 (%) 8.3%   8.4%   18.1%   15.0%   11.9%   6.7%  
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001