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Table 2 Study factors and postnatal depressive symptoms of mothers from South Western Sydney and Sydney Local Health Districts in 2014 (N = 17,564)

From: Determinants of antenatal depression and postnatal depression in Australia

  Complete cases Multiple imputation a
Outcome Participants cases % Unadjusted OR (95%CI) P value Adjusted OR (95%CI) P value Unadjusted OR (95%CI) P value Adjusted OR (95%CI) P value
Postnatal depressive symptoms 12,757 425 3.3         
Maternal age group
 20–34 years 8605 291 3.4 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  > 35 years 3170 101 3.2 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.638 0.8 (0.6–1.2) 0.422 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.002 0.7 (0.8–0.9) < 0.001
  < 20 years 228 8 3.5 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 0.936 1.3 (0.5–3.) 0.525 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.094 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.862
Socio-economic status          
 Low 4964 211 4.3 1.0   1.0   1.00   1.0  
 Medium 5877 162 2.8 0.6 (0.5–0.7) < 0.001 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.010 0.6 (0.6–0.7) < 0.001 0.7 (0.7–0.8) < 0.001
 High 1559 36 2.3 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 0.001 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 0.025 0.5 (0.4–0.5) < 0.001 0.5 (0.5–0.6) < 0.001
Antenatal depressive symptoms
 EPDS < 13 9405 225 2.4 1.0   1.0   1.00   1.0  
 EPDS ≥13 628 97 15.5 8.5 (6.5–11.0) < 0.001 6.7 (4.9–9.3) < 0.001 8.5 (8.2–8.8) < 0.001 6.9 (6.6–7.2) < 0.001
CALD group
 No 6031 162 2.7 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Yes 6005 252 4.2 1.6 (1.3–1.9) < 0.001 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 0.002 1.4 (1.4–1.5) < 0.001 1.3 (1.2–1.4) < 0.001
Supportive Partner
 Yes 10,131 299 3.0 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.00  
 No/unsure 103 36 10.9 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 0.973 3.1 (2.0–4.9) < 0.001 3.8 (3.6–4.0) < 0.001 2.9 (2.7–3.2) < 0.001
Antenatal health problems
 No 8566 256 3.0 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Yes 3177 123 3.9 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 0.400 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 0.287 1.3 (1.2–1.3) < 0.001 1.2 (1.2–1.3) < 0.001
Physical intimate partner violence
 No 10,339 329 3.1 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Yes 137 11 8.0 2.8 (1.5–5.3) 0.001 0.9 (0.3–2.3) 0.864 3.2 (2.9–3.5) < 0.001 1.5 (1.3–1.7) < 0.001
Psychological intimate partner violence
 No 10,196 317 3.1 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Yes 102 15 14.7 5.5 (3.1–9.6) < 0.001 5.3 (2.5–11.0) < 0.001 5.7 (5.3–6.2) < 0.001 4.6 (4.1–5.1) < 0.001
Type of delivery b
 Normal vaginal 7865 219 2.8 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Assisted vaginal 1408 55 3.9 1.4 (1.0–1.9) 0.014 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 0.166 1.2 (1.2–1.3) < 0.001 1.3 (1.2–1.4) < 0.001
 Caesarean section 3448 151 4.4 1.6 (1.3–2.0) < 0.001 1.7 (1.3–2.3) < 0.001 1.4 (1.4–1.5) < 0.001 1.4 (1.3–1.5) < 0.001
  1. Information on maternal age, supportive partner, physical and psychological intimate partner violence, socio-economic status, antenatal depressive symptoms, CALD and antenatal health problems were collected during the antenatal period
  2. CALD culturally and linguistically diverse
  3. a Sensitivity analyses following multiple imputations for missing values
  4. b Information on the type of delivery was collected soon after birth; and data on postnatal depressive symptoms were collected within the first six weeks post-birth. Multivariate model adjusted for variables with p-value < 0.1 in univariate analysis. The variables include maternal age, antenatal depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status, CALD, supportive partner, history of physical intimate partner violence, antenatal health problems, history of fear of partner/ex-partner and type of delivery