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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with TRD-UP and BP disorder (N = 194)

From: Psychopathological and sociodemographic features in treatment-resistant unipolar depression versus bipolar depression: a comparative study

  TRD-UP (n = 100) BP (n = 94) Statistics
Age (Years) (Mean ± SD) 46.5 ± 13.3 40.6 ± 14.3 t = 2.97, p = 0.003
Ratio of Males: Females 41:59 37:57 χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.816
Patients≤65 years of age 90 (90%) 91 (96%) χ2 = 3.59, p = 0.058
Marital status 41 (41%) 15 (16%) χ2 = 14.79, p < 0.001
Unemployed/Disability sick leave 74 (74%) 62 (66%) χ2 = 1.49, p = 0.221
Age of first major depressive episode (Mean ± SD) 37.7 ± 15.3 26.4 ± 9.8 t = 6.14, p < 0.001
Early onset of major depressive episodes(< 25) 29 (29%) 52 (55%) χ2 = 13.80, p < 0.001
Age of first psychiatric consultation (Mean ± SD) 35.9 ± 15.2 24.9 ± 10.7 t = 5.83, p < 0.001
Age of first psychiatric hospitalization (Mean ± SD) 40.1 ± 15.0 29.4 ± 11.7 t = 4.15, p < 0.001
Patients with recurrent depression (> 3) 39 (39%) 47 (50%) χ2 = 2.37, p = 0.123
Duration of illness-current episode (years) (Mean ± SD) 11.9 ± 11.5 15.4 ± 12.1 t = −2.08, p = 0.039
Patients with comorbid substance use 27 (27%) 32 (34%) χ2 = 1.14, p = 0.287
 History of Alcohol use 9 (9%) 16 (17%) χ2 = 2.77, p = 0.096
 History of Cannabis use 6 (6%) 19 (20%) χ2 = 8.71, p = 0.003
 History of Cocaine use 3 (3%) 3 (3%) χ2 = 0.006, p = 0.939
Number of Failed pharmacotherapies (Mean ± SD) 3.6 ± 2.6 5.3 ± 2.7 t = −4.31, p < 0.001
 Failed antidepressant trials (Mean ± SD) 2.25 ± 1.8 1.63 ± 1.4 t = 2.63, p = 0.009
 Failed SGA (Mean ± SD) 0.65 ± 0.7 1.68 ± 1.2 t = −7.17, p < 0.001
 Failed Mood stabilizers (Mean ± SD) 0.3 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.9 t = −8.55, p < 0.001
Patients currently having psychotherapy 41 (41%) 78 (83%) χ2 = 36.01, p < 0.001
Number of hospitalizations for depression since 1st episode
 None 56 (56%) 15 (16%) χ2 = 33.48, p < 0.001
  > one 20 (20%) 60 (64%) χ2 = 38.41, p < 0.001
Patients with 1st degree relative with affective illness 51 (51%) 63 (67%) χ2 = 5.13, p = 0.023
Patients with Anxiety disorders 61 (61%) 22 (23%) χ2 = 27.97, p < 0.001
Patients with Panic disorders 19 (19%) 3 (3%) χ2 = 12.04, p < 0.001
Patients with Melancholic symptoms 74 (74%) 40 (42%) χ2 = 19.77, p < 0.001
Patients with Atypical symptoms 14 (14%) 25 (26%) χ2 = 4.78, p = 0.029
Patients with suicidal attempts 23 (23%) 42 (44%) χ2 = 10.22, p = 0.001
History of MDE with psychotic symptoms 27 (24%) 59 (63%) χ2 = 25.11, p < 0.001
Patients with Personality disorders (Axis II in DSM-IV) 44 (44%) 45 (48%) χ2 = 0.29, p = 0.589
 Cluster A 7 (7%) 1 (1%) χ2 = 4.31, p = 0.038
 Cluster B 19 (19%) 16(17%) χ2 = 0.128, p = 0.720
 Cluster C 25 (25%) 5 (5%) χ2 = 14.36, p < 0.001
Patients with Medical condition potentially relevant to treatment (Axis III in DSM-IV)
 Autoimmune diseases 11 (11%) 2 (2%) χ2 = 6.101, p = 0.014
 Cardiovascular diseases 25 (25%) 18 (19%) χ2 = 0.962, p = 0.327
 Chronic pain disorders 25 (25%) 15 (16%) χ2 = 2.421, p = 0.120
 Neurological conditions 13 (13%) 5 (5%) χ2 = 3.396, p = 0.065
 Metabolic disorder 10 (10%) 15 (16%) χ2 = 1.532, p = 0.216
  1. SD Standard Deviation, TRD-UP Treatment-Resistant Unipolar Depression, BP Bipolar disorder type I and type II, MDE Major depressive episode, SGA Second Generation Antipsychotics. Boldface indicates significant difference at an alpha level = 0.05