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Table 3 Primary and Secondary Outcomes

From: Effectiveness of brief psychological interventions for suicidal presentations: a systematic review

  Suicide Repeat suicide attempts Suicide composite Suicidal ideation Depression Health-care utilization Hopelessness Alcohol Use
Type of outcome Behavioural Behavioural Behavioural Self-rated Self-rated Self-report & records Self-rated Self-rated
Fleischmann et al 2008 [23] n = 1867
Risk of bias scorea: 14/15
Fewer suicides:
0.2% intervention vs. 2.2% control (x2 = 13.83; P < 0.001)
RR = 0.10 (0.02 to 0.45)
n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Gysin-Maillart et al 2016 [24] n = 120
Risk of bias score: 13/15
n/a Fewer suicide attempts
8.3% intervention vs. 26.7% control (Wald χ21 = 13.1, 95% CI 12.4–13.7, p < 0.001)
HR 0.17 (0.07–0.46)
n/a No difference found No difference found 72% fewer days in hospital after 1 year (ASSIP: 29 d; control group: 105 d; W = 94.5, p = 0.038) but not significant at 2 years n/a n/a
King et al 2015 [25] n = 49
Risk of bias score: 13/15
n/a n/a n/a No difference found Lower depression
intervention Mean (SD) 25.4 (4.7) vs. 30.9 (4.0) control, F = 10.84, df = 1,44; p < .01 (Cohen’s d = 1.07; large effect size)
n/a No difference found No difference found
Miller et al 2017 [22] n = 1376
Risk of bias score: 10/15
n/a Fewer suicide attempts:
TAU, 22.9% (114/497); INT, 18.3% (92/502)
RR 0.80 (0.63 to 1.02)
Lower suicide composite:
TAU: 48.9% (243/497)
INT: 41.4% (208/502)
RR 0.85 (0.74 to 0.97)
n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
  1. TAU treatment as usual, INT intervention
  2. aHigher score indicates lower risk of bias