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Table 2 Psychological distress in patients with non-cardiac chest pain, (mean ± SD)

From: The associations between psychological distress and healthcare use in patients with non-cardiac chest pain: does a history of cardiac disease matter?

  Total (N = 552) History of cardiac disease (n = 188) No history of cardiac disease (n = 360) p-value
Somatization
 PHQ-15 total score 10.0 ± 5.4 10.8 ± 5.6 9.5 ± 5.2 0.007
Fear of body sensations
 BSQ total score 31.4 ± 12.1 31.5 ± 12.9 31.3 ± 11.7 0.837
Cardiac anxiety
 CAQ total score 24.6 ± 13.0 28.2 ± 14.5 22.7 ± 11.8 < 0.001
  - Fear mean score 1.6 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.8 0.010
  - Avoidance mean score 1.3 ± 1.0 1.7 ± 1.1 1.1 ± 0.9 < 0.001
  - Heart-focused attention mean score 1.1 ± 0.8 1.2 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 0.7 0.017
Depressive symptoms
 PHQ-9 total score 6.4 ± 5.9 7.4 ± 6.6 5.8 ± 5.4 0.002
  1. BSQ Body Sensations Questionnaire, CAQ Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PHQ-15 Patient Health Questionnaire-15