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Table 1 Descriptive Statistics of Stroke Survivors with Co-occurring Depression Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2002–2012)

From: Prevalence, patterns and predictors of depression treatment among community-dwelling older adults with stroke in the United States: a cross sectional study

  All (N = 370) No Dep Tx (N = 55) AD only (N = 268) AD & Psych (N = 47) Sig
Wt.% Wt.% Wt.% Wt.%  
  12.4 74.8 12.8  
Predisposing Factors
 Age
  50–64 years 39.6 42.8 34.8 64.9 ***
  65,+ years 60.4 57.2 65.2 35.1  
 Gender
  Female 62.4 65.3 62.1 61.9  
  Men 37.6 34.7 37.9 38.1  
 Race/Ethnicity
  White 77.3 67.4 78.1 82.3 *
  Other 22.7 32.6 21.9 17.7  
Enabling Factors
 Marital Status
  Married 49.4 41.5 51.4 45.2  
  Other 50.6 58.5 48.6 54.8  
 Education
  LT HS 25.7 39.7 24.5 17.3 ***
  HS 33.2 32.6 31.0 47.6  
   > HS 41.0 27.7 44.5 35.1  
 Poverty Status
  Poor 15.9 26.2 14.0 17.6 **
  Near Poor 24.3 32.0 23.4 22.2  
  Middle Income 33.2 29.9 33.8 33.0  
  High Income 26.6 11.9 28.9 27.2  
 Insurance
  Public 47.2 59.3 42.8 61.1 ***
  Others 52.8 40.7 57.2 38.9  
Need Factors
 Perceived Physical Health Status
  Ex/vgood 12.4 12.0 13.2 8.8  
  Good 25.1 28.5 23.1 33.6  
  Fair/poor 62.5 59.5 63.8 57.6  
 Perceived Mental Health Status
  Ex/vgood 22.9 36.1 23.0 9.2 *
  Good 38.0 28.2 39.2 39.8  
  Fair/poor 39.2 35.7 37.7 50.9  
 Pain
  Quite/Extreme 46.4 51.7 44.3 53.6 ***
  Little/Moderate 41.5 28.4 45.4 31.3  
  No Pain 12.1 19.8 10.3 15.0  
 ADL Disability
  Yes 31.2 32.9 33.1 18.3 *
  No 68.8 67.1 66.9 81.7  
 IADL Disability
  Yes 51.7 47.0 52.9 49.6  
  No 48.3 53.0 47.1 50.4  
 Functional Disability
  Yes 89.8 94.4 89.7 85.9  
  No 10.2 5.6 10.3 14.1  
 Activities Disability
  Yes 80.2 75.7 80.6 82.4  
  No 19.8 24.3 19.4 17.6  
 Chronic Disease Groups
  None 33.8 26.0 34.8 35.8 **
  One 30.2 32.5 29.3 33.3  
  Two 24.5 20.8 26.8 14.7  
  Three or more 11.4 20.7 9.0 16.3  
Personal Health Practices Factors
 BMI Status
  Und/normal 58.8 77.5 58.4 43.6 ***
  Overwt/Obese 41.2 22.5 41.6 56.4  
 Smoking Status
  Current smoker 16.3 8.1 17.4 17.6  
  Other 83.7 91.9 82.6 82.4  
External Environmental Factors
 Area of Residence
  Metropolitan 78.0 84.9 78.2 70.3  
  Non-Metropolitan 22.0 15.1 21.8 29.7  
 Region
  Northeast 18.9 19.9 15.5 37.6 ***
  Mid-west 21.9 8.5 25.0 16.4  
  South 37.7 48.1 38.8 21.8  
  West 21.5 23.5 20.7 24.2  
  1. Based on 370 older adults (age ≥ 50 years) with self-reported stroke and depression who were alive during the calendar year (2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012)
  2. Abbreviations- No Dep Tx No Depression Treatment, AD only Antidepressants only, AD & Psych Antidepressants with Psychotherapy, LT HS Less than High School, HS High School, Wt% Weighted percentage, Sig Significant difference, Ex/vgood Excellent or Very Good, ADL Activity of Daily Living, IADL Instrumental Activity of Daily Living, Und/normal Underweight or Normal, Overwt/Obese Overweight or Obese, BMI Body Mass Index
  3. Asterisks represent statistical significance between the different depression treatment groups [No Depression Treatment (Unweighted N = 55); Antidepressants only (Unweighted N = 268); and Antidepressants with Psychotherapy (Unweighted N = 47)] based on chi-square tests
  4. ***p < 0.001; ** 0.001 ≤ p < 0.01; *0.01 ≤ p < 0.05