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Table 1 Results of univariate and multivariate analyses on variables tested for associations with psychological distress

From: Prevalence of psychological distress among parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Malawi

Variable   Crude risk ratios Adjusted risk ratios
  Category Crude RR (CI) P value Adjusted RR (CI) P value
Center Lilongwe 1.0   1.0  
Mzuzu 0.33 (0.17–0.6) 0.001* 0.45 (0.22–0.93) 0.03*
Socio-economic status Low SES 1.0   1.0  
Upper SES 0.49 (0.2–0.9) 0.02* 0.69 (033–1.4) 0.32
Sex Female 1.0   1.0  
Male 1.16 (0.43–3.1) 0.76 1.17 (0.37–3.6) 0.77
Knowledge of one’s child’s disability No 1.0   1.0  
Yes 2.5 (1.08–6.13) 0.03* 2.2 (0.87–5.7) 0.09
Confidence in managing own child No confidence 1.0   1.0  
Has confidence 0.35 (0.18–0.66) 0.001* 0.42 (0.2–0.8) 0.02*
Perceived burden of care Low 1.0   1.0  
High 2.7 (1.3–5.6) 0.005* 1.7 (0.8–3.8) 0.151
Psychological Support No 1.0   1.0  
Yes 0.5 (0.25–0.98) 0.04* 0.56 (0.25–1.2) 0.15
  1. 1.0 = Reference
  2. *p < 0.05